Category «Medical ethics»

Hermann Becker-Freyseng

Hermann Becker-Freyseng ( Ludwigshafen , 18 of July of 1910 – Heidelberg , 27 of August of 1961 ) was a physician Nazi and consultant Aviation Medicine in the Luftwaffe . He was recognized as a senior aviation medicine specialist 1 Becker-Freyseng was one of the defendants in the Doctors’ Trial . 2 First investigations …

MK Ultra Project

The MK Ultra project , sometimes also known as mind control program of the CIA – was the code name given to a secret and illegal program designed and implemented by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States (CIA) for experimentation in Humans. These human trials were intended to identify and develop new substances …

BLUEBIRD Project

Bluebird ( Blue Bird ) is a program of mind control of the CIA in January conducted between 1951 and 1953 that was seeking to brainwash detained and inculcate new values and ideas. During this period the CIA authorized licensed psychiatrists to conduct experiments, including: creating new identities, inducing amnesia , creating multiple personalities and …

ARTICHOKE Project

The ARTICHOKE Project (also referred to as Operation ARTICHOKE ) was a CIA project investigating interrogation methods for prisoners stemming from the fear of seeing the techniques used by North Korea with American prisoners. Development It led to the BLUEBIRD project the 20 of August of 1951 , managed by the Office of Scientific Intelligence …

Operation Whitecoat

The Operation Whitecoat was the name that received a medical research program conducted by the United States Army between 1954 and 1973 at Fort Detrick which consisted in conducting medical experiments on human volunteers, chosen from among recruits soldiers registered as conscientious objectors Of the Seventh-day Adventist Church . The stated aim of these experiments …

Monster Study

Monster Study is the name given to an experiment on stuttering performed on 22 orphaned children, aged 5 to 15 years, in Davenport , Iowa ( USA ) in 1939 . 1 The experiment Devised by Wendell Johnson at the University of Iowa , the research was intended to induce stuttering in subjects who did …

Project MKDELTA

The MKDELTA Project or “MKPLUSULTRA” as his successor Project MKULTRA , is an operation of mind control carried out by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States. Development Involved the use of biochemistry in research in humans. 8 9 10 11 12 A special procedure called MKDELTA was designed to govern the (human) material …

Zhongma Fortress

La Fortaleza Zhongma or Tōgō unit was a research facility for biological warfare built by the Kwantung Army in Beiyinhe , on the outskirts of Harbin , Manchukuo , during the Second Sino-Japanese War . Background A Shirō Ishii , researcher at the Japanese Imperial Army focused on biological warfare and chemical warfare , was …

Tuskegee Experiment

The Tuskegee experiment was a clinical study conducted between 1932 and 1972 in the US city of Tuskegee ( Alabama ) by the Public Health Service of the United States. Then, 600 African-American sharecroppers , mostly illiterate, were studied to observe the natural progression of syphilis if it was not treated and if it could …

Small World Experiment

The experiment in the small world comprises several experiments carried out by social psychologist Stanley Milgram in his research on social networks in the United States . What was innovative about this research was the revelation that human society is a social network that presents the structure of the small world , characterized by much …

Rosenhan’s Experiment

Rosenhan’s experiment was a famous experiment on the validity of the psychiatric diagnosis carried out by the psychologist David Rosenhan between 1968 and 1972. 1 It was published in 1973 in the journal Science under the heading “On being sane in insane places” ( “To be sane in demented places”). 2 The study is considered …

Stanford Prison Experiment

The Stanford Jail Experiment is a well-known psychological study about the influence of an extreme environment, life in prison, man-made behaviors, dependent on the social roles they developed (captive, guarded). It was carried out in 1971 by a team of researchers led by Philip Zimbardo of Stanford University . Volunteers were recruited to play the …

9420 Squadron

The 9420 Squadron or Oka Squadron consisted of two units formed in 1942 to support the Imperial Japanese Army in the southern region: Umeoka Unit, which specialized in bubonic plague , and Unit Kono, which specialized in malaria . 1 Under General Kitagawa Masataka , 9420 Squadron was based in Tanpoi Hospital Permai, Johor , …

8604 Squadron

The Squadron 8604 or Squadron Nami was a secret medical unit of the Imperial Japanese Army investigating biological weapons and other topics through human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War ( 1937 – 1945 ) and during World War II . Founded in Guangzhou , Guangdong , near Hong Kong , and with its base …

731 Squadron

The Unit 731 was a covert program of research and development of biological weapons the Imperial Japanese Army , which carried out deadly medical experiments on humans during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and World War II . He was responsible for some of the most horrible war crimes committed in modern times. Officially known …

100 Squadron

The Unit 100 was a secret unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II . It was operated by Kenpeitai , the military police of the Empire of Japan . It was located in Mokotan, Manchukuo , a town south of Changchun City and was …

John Charles Cutler

John Charles Cutler ( Cleveland , 29 of June of 1915 – Pittsburgh , 8 of February of 2003 ) was a surgeon American best known for leading a research program on sexually transmitted infections in the Public Health Service of the United States . The Mengele American As director of the US national program, …

Project CHATTER

The Chatter Project is the crypto-CIA of a US Navy program that began in the fall of 1947 focused on the identification and subsequent testing of drugs used in interrogation and recruitment of agents . This program included experimentation with animals and humans. The program ended shortly after the end of the Korean War in …

Asch’s experiment

The experiments in accordance with the group of Asch were a series of experiments realized in 1951 that demonstrated significantly the power of the conformity in the groups. The experimenters, led by Solomon Asch, asked some students to participate in a “vision test”. In fact all but one of the participants in the experiment were …

Rosemary Kennedy

Rose Marie Kennedy , known as Rosemary Kennedy ( 13 as September as 1918 – 7 as January as 2005 ) was the third descendant and the first child of the marriage of Joseph Patrick Kennedy and Rose Elizabeth Kennedy . At the age of 23, she underwent a lobotomy that left her incapacitated for …

David Reimer

David Reimer (August 22, 1965 as Bruce Reimer – May 5, 2004 ) was a Canadian who was born as a male but was sexually reassigned and turned into a woman after his penis was accidentally destroyed during his circumcision . The psychologist John Money oversaw his case, considering that the reallocation of Reimer was …

Medical negligence

The negligence medical is an act evil done by a health care provider who deviates from the accepted standards in the medical community and causing any injury to the patient . It is to have done not appropriate acts or, for not having had the diligence required for the particular case. That is, not having …

Christine Maggiore

Christine Joy Maggiore ( Chicago , July 25 , 1956 – Los Angeles , December 27, 2008) was an HIV positive activist who promoted the position that HIV is not the cause of AIDS . 1 2 She was the founder of the Alive & Well AIDS Alternatives organization that questions the relationship between HIV …

Medical ethics in Jewish culture

The Jewish medical ethics is a modern, school and clinical approach to medical ethics based on Jewish thought. Initiated by Rabbi Immanuel Jakobovits in the 1950s, Jewish medical ethics focuses primarily on applied ethics based on the Jewish law tradition (halacha) . In addition, scholars have begun to examine theoretical and methodological issues, while the …

Medical torture

Medical torture describes the intervention and active participation on certain occasions of medical professionals in acts of torture, either to know what victims may be able to endure, to apply treatments that intensify torture, or as torture itself. Medical torture may involve the practitioner’s medical knowledge to facilitate interrogation, corporal punishment for human experimentation, or …

Jacques Testart

Jacques Testart (born on 3 October as 1939 ) is a biologist French , who got the birth of the first test tube baby in France in 1982. Scientific activity Biologist of formation, doctor of Sciences, director of research in Inserm (Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale), Laboratory of meiosis and …

Living will

The term “living will” , a document of anticipated wills or prior instructions , refers to the written document by which a citizen expresses his will in advance – so that it can be fulfilled at the moment when he is unable to express himself personally – about the care and The treatment of your …

Biomedical tissue

A biomedical tissue is a biological tissue used for organ transplantation and for medical research , particularly as it relates to cancer . It combines biologically active cells and molecules to create functional tissues. When biomedical tissue is used in research, it is called a biological specimen . These tissues and organs may be referred …

Placebo substance

A placebo is a pharmacologically inert substance that is used as a control in a clinical trial . The placebo is able to provoke a positive effect to certain sick individuals, if they do not know that they are receiving an inert substance (eg water, sugar) and believe that it is a medicine. This is …

Sicko

Sicko is the English title of a film by Michael Moore released on June 29 , 2007. The film offers a critical view ofhealth system of the United States , emphasizing critical to large service companies and US health The difficulties, for millions of Americans to access a quality and universal health system. Through his …

Terminal sedation

The terminal sedation is a procedure doctor for that conceptually there is still no clear definition and is still controversially discussed. In essence it is the administration of medicines with a strong tranquilizing and sedative effect to a person who is on the verge of death. Because in principle there is a possibility of accelerating …

Juan Rof Carballo

Juan Rof Carballo ( Lugo , November of June of 1905 – Madrid , December of October of 1994 ) was a physician and essayist Spanish, father of psychosomatic medicine and member of one of the Royal Spanish Academy , framed within the so – called Generation of 36 . Training Doctor of Medicine, studied …

Doctor-pacient relationship

The relationship between the doctor and his patient plays a very important role in the practice of medicine and is essential for the provision of high quality medical care in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease . The relationship between the doctor and his patient is one of the bases of contemporary medical ethics …

Primum non nocere

The Latin expression primum nil nocere or primum non nocere is translated in Castilian for “the first thing is to do no harm”. It is a maxim applied in the field of medicine , physiotherapy and health sciences, often attributed to the Greek physician Hippocrates . Application It is not always possible to apply this …

Quaternary prevention

The quaternary prevention is a set of measures that seek to avoid or mitigate the potential adverse consequences for patients of -cribados interventions, diagnostics, treatments- the health system . Concept Main idea : avoiding overdiagnosis and overtreatment in patients. 1 Objective : reduce the incidence of iatrogenic. Application : throughout the care episode (preclinical and …

Milgram Experiment

The Milgram experiment was a series of experiments in social psychology conducted by Stanley Milgram , a psychologist at Yale University , and described in an article published in 1963 in the journal Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology under the title Behavioral Study of Obedience ( Study of the Behavior of Obedience ) and …

Medice cure te ipsum

Cūrā tē ipsum o medice, cūrā tē ipsum is a Latin sentence that literally means “Doctor, heal yourself.” It is used to encourage health care professionals to care for and cure themselves before caring for their own patients. Contrary to popular belief, it is not used to deride medical personnel , but rather for people …

Sanitary malice

Malícia sanitaria are preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic or rehabilitating activities of doubtful utility for the individual or society, but that benefit those who promote or promote them. 1 Concept It is malice sanitary: the invention and / or promotion of diseases , the medicalization of patients, unnecessary and sometimes dangerous health interventions. It often exploits the …

Brain Lobotomy

The lobotomy brain is a kind of psychosurgery , the surgical section consisting of one or more nerve fascicles of a cerebral lobe . If complete ablation of a cerebral lobe occurs, it is called a cerebral lobectomy . 1 It is also called according to the intervened lobes: temporal, parietal, frontal or prefrontal – …

Reverse care law

The reverse care law says that access to quality medical or social care varies in inverse proportion to their need in the assisted population. 1 As stated by Julian Tudor Hart in 1971 , the term has been widely adopted. Definition The law states that: “The availability of good medical care tends to vary inversely …

Henrietta Lacks

Henrietta Lacks (sometimes mistakenly Henrietta Lakes, Helen Lane, Helen Larson ) (August 1, 1920 – October 4 , from 1951) 1 was a woman African American involuntary donor without their knowledge of cells of the tumor cancer , which was cultivated By George Otto Gey to originate an immortal cell culture line ( HeLa cells …

Nightingale Oath

The Pledge for Nurses Florence Nightingale ( Florence Nightingale Pledge ) is an oath traditional which is effected by the new nurses . It was created by a committee led by Lystra Gretter , a nursing professor at the old Harper Hospital in Detroit , Michigan , and was first used in her graduate class …

Hippocratic Oath

The Hippocratic oath is a public oath that can be made by people who graduate in medicine . It has an ethical content, which guides the doctor in the practice of his trade. In its original form it regulated the obligations towards the teacher and his family, towards the disciples, towards the colleagues and towards …

Clinical Indeterminacy

The clinical equipoise , also known as therapeutic uncertainty , provides the ethical basis for medical research in which patients are assigned to different treatment groups in a clinical trial . Benjamin Freedman used the term for the first time in 1987. 1 The ethical dilemma during a clinical trial usually appears in those performed …

Iatrogeny

Iatrogeny , is a health damage, caused or caused by an involuntary medical act. It is derived from the word iatrogenesis whose literal meaning ’caused by the physician or healer’ ( iatros means ‘doctor’ in Greek , and Genesis: ‘create’). 1 It can be produced by a drug, medical or surgical procedure, performed by a …

Philoctetes (work)

Philoctetes (Greek: Φιλοκτήτης / Philoktetes) is a Greek tragedy of Sophocles , first performed at the festival of Dionysia of 409. C. , where it obtained the first place. The story takes place during the War of Troy (after the events of the Iliad , and before the sacking of Troy). It describes the attempt …

Lack of ethics of US physicians

The lack of ethics of US physicians in events in Guatemala in the 1940s was evident when, first the Secretary of State and then the president of the United States have called the Guatemalan president to apologize for the experiments To inoculate the syphilis, chancroid and gonorrhea bacteria in Guatemalans in the years 1946-1948, in …

Experiments on syphilis in Guatemala

The Guatemala syphilis experiment occurred between the years 1946 to 1948 , under a program sponsored and executed by the government of the United States in Guatemala . They were human experiments in which doctors , usually Americans, infected by direct inoculation and without the consent or knowledge of the -citizens victims Guatemalans, including soldiers …

Vipeholm Experiments

The Vipeholm experiments were a series of experiments with humans. Patients at Vipeholm Mental Hospital in Lund, Sweden, received a diet based on sweets with the aim of causing dental caries (1945-1955). The sponsors of the tests were both the sugar industry and the community of dentists, in an effort to determine whether carbohydrates were …

Medical ethics

The medical ethics has its starting point before our era, symbolized by the most illustrious physician, antique Hippocrates , whose doctrine has had a great influence on the exercise of the medical profession in later centuries. Ethics is the theoretical reflection on morality. Ethics is responsible for discussing and reflexively grounding that set of principles …

Ethics of biobanks

“Ethics of biobanks” refers to ethics related to all aspects of biobanks . The issues examined in the field of biological bank ethics are special cases of clinical research ethics . Synopsis of Problems The table below shows many of the biggest controversies related to biological banks. The table mentions a problem, then describes a …

Escuoliosis

The schooliosis is a syncretism language between the words ” school ” and ” scoliosis ” (in English ” schooliosis ” = “school” + “scoliosis” ) devised and described by Petr Skrabanek and James McCormick . 1 2 This term is included within the disease promotion group . 3 The authors state that there is …

Nocebo effect

It is called the nocebo effect in medicine and veterinary medicine due to the worsening of the symptoms or signs of a disease by the expectation, conscious or not, of the negative effects of a therapeutic measure. Arguably the opposite version of the placebo effect . It is a relevant concept in the specific fields …

Waterfall effect

The cascade effect refers to a process that takes place in a staggered form, from an initial event to an apparently inevitable conclusion. The cascades of clinical interventions , initiated by irrelevant signs and symptoms , or by erroneous decisions generated by guides and protocols, assault the patient , dispense with the implicit Iatrogeny in …

Body Donation

The body donation is the disposal of the entire body after dying to be used in medical research and education . The donation of bodies allows to teach anatomy to medical students and other areas of health sciences and to the training and advanced training of doctors and surgeons, where these professionals learn and practice, …

Genetic discrimination

The genetic discrimination also known as genoism, occurs when people are treated differently and affects the individual, for example by your employer , school or your insurance company , because they have or appear to have a mutation gene that could cause or Increase the risk of an inherited disorder . It can also refer …

Isabelle Dinoire

Isabelle Dinoire , born in 1967 in France and died on April 22, 2016 1 2 was the first person to receive a partial face transplant successfully after an intervention performed by surgeons Bernard Devauchelle and Jean-Michel Dubernard on November 27 , 2005 at Amiens hospital giving her a new face and a new life. …

Tokyo Declaration

The Tokyo Declaration was adopted in October 1975 during the 29th World Medical Association (WMA) General Assembly , and subsequently updated editorially by the same Association in France (May 2005 and 2006). The Tokyo Declaration states that torture is “contrary to the laws of humanity” 1 and antithetical to the physician’s superior mission, which is …

Declaration of Helsinki

The Declaration of Helsinki has been promulgated by the World Medical Association (WMA) as a body of ethical principles that should guide the medical community and others engaged in human experimentation. By many it is considered as the most important document in the ethics of research with human beings, 1 although it is not a …

Declaration of Geneva

The Geneva Declaration is an update of the Hippocratic oath proposed by the General Assembly of the World Medical Association in September 1948 . It takes its name from the venue where the meeting took place, the city ofGeneva , Switzerland . The main purpose of the text is to create a new document that …

De Grote Donorshow

Grote Donorshow ( The Big Show Donor 1 or The Big Donor 2 ) was a reality show aired in Holland on Friday, 1 June of 2007 by the channel BNN . The program consisted of a 37yearold patient of a tumor cerebral terminal, would donate one kidney to one of three candidates awaiting kidney …

International Code of Medical Ethics

The International Code of Medical Ethics describes the duties and obligations of physicians around the world. Its appearance was a response to Nazi experimentation in human doctors during the era of the Nazi regime . It is one of the most important international ethical regulations in clinical and medical research and a core document of …

Code of Medical Ethics

A code of medical ethics contains the rules to be followed by doctors in the exercise of their profession, including conducting related to teaching, research and administration of health services activities, and the exercise of any other activity in Which must use the knowledge acquired in the study of medicine . 1 Objective Regulate professionals …

Informed consent

The informed consent is the process by which it is guaranteed that the subject has voluntarily expressed their intention to participate in the investigation, having understood the information that has been given, about the study objectives, benefits, discomfort, The possible risks and the alternatives, their rights and responsibilities. In some cases, such as the physical …

Code of Nuremberg

The Nuremberg Code of Medical Ethics sets out a series of principles governing experimentation with human beings, which resulted from the deliberations of the Nuremberg Trials at the end of World War II . Specifically, the Code responds to the deliberations and arguments for which the Nazi hierarchy and some doctors were prosecuted for their …

Causal health

The causal health is one of the legal authorizations to abortion , which is a permission to voluntarily terminate the pregnancy when there is a risk to the health of women associated with the continuation of pregnancy. It is currently consecrated 1 in the penal codes and in the regulation of many countries in Latin …

Arrowsmith (film)

Arrowsmith is a film American of 1931 Content drama directed by John Ford on a screenplay by Sidney Howard based on the novel Arrowsmith , the writer American Sinclair Lewis . It was produced by Samuel Goldwyn for United Artists and starring Ronald Colman . In the Spanish speaking fieldwas released with the titles of …

Anti-psychiatry

Anti-psychiatry is a concept coined originally by David Cooper and is used to designate different approaches and political-social doctrines in the area of ​​mental health that have in common to be detractors of psychiatry . The broad spectrum of approaches that ranges from criticism – in different degrees and directed to specific aspects – to …

Ana-Ana

Ana-Ana is a dark term little known outside the medical market in Argentina, which refers to the payment of returns or fines for the provision of services or sale of products, which is paid who referenced the customer towards the product or service. 1 The main fact by which the term came to the surface …

Amygdalin

The tonsillar is also known as laetrile , tonsillar or nitrilosida , although these compounds do not refer to a single chemical entity. The ortomedicina the called vitamin B17 , although it is not a vitamin . It is a cyanogenic glycoside derived from the amino acid phenylalanine . In overdose, this substance can be …

Emil Abderhalden

Emil Abderhalden ( Oberuzwil , 9 as March as 1877 – Zurich , 5 as August as 1950 ) was a physiologist and biochemist Swiss. Trajectory During the First World War he was noted for his help in evacuating malnourished children from Germany to Switzerland . 1 Professor of physiology at the University of Halle-Wittenberg …

Christian Wirth

Christian Wirth ( Obersalzheim , Württemberg , 24 of November of 1885 – near Hrpelje-Kozina , today Slovenia , 26 of maypole of 1944 ) was an officer of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and the German police. He was commander of the Bełżec extermination camp and one of the main architects of the program to exterminate …

Franz Stangl

Franz Paul Stangl ( Altmünster , 26 of March of 1908 – Düsseldorf , 28 of June of 1971 ) was an official Nazi of the SS and active participant in the Holocaust of World War II . He was commander of the Sobibór and Treblinka extermination camps during Operation Reinhard ‘s call . He …