Franz Paul Stangl ( Altmünster , 26 of March of 1908 – Düsseldorf , 28 of June of 1971 ) was an official Nazi of the SS and active participant in the Holocaust of World War II . He was commander of the Sobibór and Treblinka extermination camps during Operation Reinhard ‘s call . He was arrested in Brazil in 1967, extradited to West Germany , tried and convicted of the mass murder of 900,000 people.
Born in a devoutly Catholic family in the Austrian region of Salzkammergut , Franz Stangl completed his studies in public school in 1923. 1 In early 1931 he was accepted into the Austrian Federal Police Academy in Linz and for two years Was training in the Academy. 1
Stangl was already an officer of the Austrian Police when the annexation ( Anschluss ) of Austria was produced by Nazi Germany in March 1938 . For those dates – since 1931 – already was member of the Nazi Party with the number of ficha 6,370,447; In May 1938 he joined the SS , 1 with the file number 296,569, where he reached the hierarchy of SS-Hauptsturmführer (Captain). After the annexation of Austria, Stangl was assigned to the Schutzpolizei (which had remained under the control of the Gestapo ) in Linz, being assigned to the Jewish Office (in German: Judenreferat ). 2 He was recruited for the program Euthanasia known as Aktion T4 , 2 serving in the centers Hartheim and Bernburg Euthanasia helping the program where he showed great efficiency.
In 1942 he was appointed commander of the Sobibor extermination camp . Stangl previously studied the operation and operations of the Bełżec Extermination Camp , and accelerated the completion of Sobibor’s construction work. 3 For this reason the camp was considered a model by the Nazis. It is estimated that about 100,000 Jews would have been killed during the period when Stangl was head of the Sobibor camp, until October 1942, when he left command. 4 Later, he took over the extermination camp at Treblinka , which at that time was crowded with prisoners and chaotic administration. There he reintroduced the model already tested in Sobibor. In his management was helped by his subordinate, Gustav Wagner . In Treblinka, Stangl effectively industrialized the mass killing at the rate of 3,000 prisoners in two hours, with a maximum of 12,000-15,000 deaths per day. It is believed that there were times when the ratio of prisoners killed was 22,000 in 24 hours. 5
Stangl directly supervised the death of at least one million people between these two camps and for its effectiveness was awarded the first-class iron cross . After the closure of Treblinka for lack of prisoners, he was sent to fight against the partisans in Trieste along with the remaining personnel of Operation Reinhard , under the command of SS General Odilo Globocnik , supervising the killing of Jews captured in The area of San Saba, Italy . Towards the end of the war he returned to Vienna, where he served in the so-called Alpine Fortress ( Alpenfestung ). 2
After the war, Stangl was captured by US troops in northern Italy and brought before the international military tribunals for his participation in the euthanasia program , but escaped from the Gleisenbach prisoner of war camp in 1948 . With the help of Catholic Bishop Alois Hudal and the so-called ODESSA group , Stangl first traveled to Syria and after living for a few years in Damascus, he later moved to Brazil in 1951 , again through Italy. Installed in Brazil with his family, Stangl worked at the Volkswagen factory in São Paulo .
Capture and judgment
In the mid-1960s his residence in that country was discovered by Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal , who notified him to West German authorities and pressed for Stangl to be tried. On 28 February as as 1967 he was arrested by Brazilian police and extradited the 23 as June 1967 to West Germany , to be tried for crimes against humanity .
He was accused of the direct murder of 400,000 Jews from Bulgaria , Greece , Yugoslavia , the Netherlands , Turkey , Austria and Poland , as well as gypsies and other groups. He was also accused of collaborating in the murder of 700,000 people between April 1942 and August 1943 . Found guilty, the 22 of December of 1970 the Düsseldorf Court sentenced him to life imprisonment . After being convicted, Stangl said, “My fault is that I’m still here. That’s my fault.” 6
Stangl died of a heart attack in prison on 28 of June of 1971 . 4
- ↑ Jump to:a b c Henry Friedlander (1995). The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution , Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 0-8078-2208-6 , pp. 204-205
- ↑ Jump to:a b c Christian Zentner, Friedemann Bedürftig (1991). The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich , Macmillan: New York, ISBN 0-02-897502-2 , pp. 910-911
- Back to top↑ Christian Zentner, Friedemann Bedürftig (1991). The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich , Macmillan: New York, ISBN 0-02-897502-2 , p. 878
- ↑ Jump to:a b Robert S. Wistrich (1982). Who’s Who in Nazi Germany , pp. 295-296
- Back to top↑ David E. Sumler (1973). The history of Europe in the twentieth century . Dorsey Press, ISBN 0-256-01421-3 , p. 250
- Back to top↑ Gitta Sereny (1995) . Into That Darkness: From Mercy Killing to Mass Murder , London: Pimlico, p. 364