Robert Desnos ( Paris , 4 of July of 1900 – Theresienstadt concentration camp , 8 of June of 1945 ) was a poet surrealist French and a member of the French Resistance during World War II .
Robert Pierre Desnos was born in Paris in the year 1900. He left his studies at the age of 16 to begin work in a pharmacy , while he began to show interest during his adolescence by dreams , carefully noting those who Seemed significant, as he stated years later. 1
His first poems , inspired by the French symbolists and by Apollinaire , were published in 1918 in La Tribune des Jeunes ( The Tribune of the Young ), a Parisian socialist magazine . In 1919 , he met the poet Benjamin Péret , who introduced him to the Dada group in Paris and introduced him to the poet André Breton . That same year, Desnos participated in the avant-garde magazine Le Trait d’union ( The Guion ). While working as a columnist for the Paris-Soir newspaper , Desnos became an active member of the surrealist group , developing a special talent for automatic writing and hypnotic sleep . Breton, once separated from the Dada movement, praised him in his Manifeste du surréalisme ( Manifesto of Surrealism , 1924 ) stating that he was the ” prophet ” of the movement and that ” he spoke surreal at will .” 2 Despite its surreal militancy, Desnos did not abandon his work as a journalist. There were serious discrepancies between Desnos and Breton on this and other matters, such as the validity or otherwise of the classic, stratiphic and rhyming verse (what Breton called, with contempt, ” fixed forms “, surpassed, in his opinion , From the work of Rimbaud ).
Desnos fell in love with the singer of music hall Yvonne George (1896-1930), but the followers of this one made that it became an impossible love . He wrote several works dedicated to his lover, among them the poems A la mystérieuse ( A la mysterie , 1926) and Les Ténèbres ( The Darknesses , 1927), as well as La Liberté or l’Amour! ( Freedom or Love ! , 1927) and Journal d’une apparition ( Diary of an Apparition , 1927). 2
In 1929 , Breton definitively condemned Desnos, who had joined the magazine Documents , the writer Georges Bataille , and it was one of those who signed a cadavre written attacking the ” ox Breton “. His radio career began in 1932 with a show dedicated to the fictional character Fantômas . During that time, he befriended Picasso , Hemingway , Artaud and John Dos Passos ; Published several criticisms about jazz and cinema , while increasing his participation in political affairs.
In 1930 , he published The Night of Loveless Nights , a lyric on solitude , written in a classic style, more similar to Baudelaire’s than Breton’s, and Corps et biens ( Bodies and Goods ), which compiles some of his earlier poems. The use of the measured verse and the rhyme in the works of this period turn it, in the eyes of the surrealist orthodoxy, into a ‘putrefacto’. 2 The influence of François Villon , Gerard de Nerval and Luis de Góngora , is succeeded by the magisterium of Breton , whose poetic technique admires Desnos. 2
During World War II , Desnos was an active member of the French Resistance , often published under a pseudonym , and was arrested by the Gestapo the 22 of February of 1944 . He was deported to Auschwitz , Buchenwald , Flossenbürg and finally to Terezin in Czechoslovakia in 1945 . There he died of typhus weeks after the camp was released. 3 He is buried in the Parisian Cemetery of Montparnasse .
- Rrose Sélavy (1922-1923)
- Le pelican
- Langage Cuit ( 1923 )
- Deuil pour deuil ( 1924 )
- La Liberté or l’Amour ! ( 1927 )
- Les Ténèbres ( 1927 ) – Full cast and crew
- Corps et biens ( 1930 )
- Sans cou ( 1934 )
- Fortunes ( 1942 )
- État de veille ( 1943 )
- Le Vin est tiré ( 1943 ) – Full cast and crew
- Contrée ( 1944 )
- Le Bain avec Andromède ( 1944 )
- Chantefables et chantefleurs ( 1970 ), posthumous publication.
- Destinée arbitraire ( 1975 ), posthumous publication.
- Nouvelles-Hébrides et autres textes ( 1978 ), posthumous publication.
Works in Castilian
- To the mysterious. The darkness . Eds. Hyperion. Bilingual. Translation, introduction and notes of Juan Abeleira and Ada Salas. ISBN 84-7517-469-8 .
- Freedom or love! Editorial Cabaret Voltaire. ISBN 84-935185-4-9 . 4
- The Ripper . Editorial Errata Naturae. ISBN 978-84-936374-5-3
- Back to top↑ «Robert Desnos» . Encyclopædia Britannica . Accessed August 18, 2016 .
- ↑ Jump to:a b c d Introduction to A mysterious. The darkness .
- Back to top↑ Conley, Katharine (2003). Robert Desnos, Surrealism, and the Marvelous in Everyday Life (in English) . University of Nebraska . Accessed August 18, 2016 .
- Back to top↑ The book in the Cabaret Voltaire Publishing House