The ghetto of L’viv (Lwow or Lviv) was one of the largest ghettos established by the Nazis in L’viv , Galicia ( Poland , today Ukraine ) between the 8 of November of 1941 and the 1 of June of 1943 . In the district 120,000 Jews perished, surviving 823.
By 1939, the city was home to 120,000 Jews (the largest population after Warsaw and Lodz ) 1 but when the occupation Nazi in 1941, the number climbed to more than 220,000 having come fleeing from western Poland. One month after the outbreak of World War II , the city and the territory of Galicia was annexed by the Soviets as part of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact 2
The ghetto was liquidated on 1 June 1943 and the survivors sent to the concentration camps of Janowska and Belzec 3
It established the Jüdisches Wohnbezirk in a northern suburb of L’viv (Lwow), where he had to move the Jewish population. The conditions were poor and before they arrived, 5,000 old and sick people were shot while crossing the bridge of Pełtewna Street. 4
It was one of the first where was implemented the Operation Reinhard , between March and April 1942, 15,000 Jews were sent to the extermination camp of Belzec . In June 1942, 2,000 were taken to Janowska to work, only 120 were used and the rest were shot. In August 1942, 50,000 people were deported to Belzec .
In early June 1943, the Nazis set fire to many buildings in order to finish vacating and liquidating the ghetto. Many Jews managed to escape, resisting in the sewers of the city. 5
When the Russians entered the city on July 26, 1944, between 200 and 900 Jews remained in the city (823 according to the Jewish Provisional Committee).
One of its most famous residents was Simon Wiesenthal , his wife and mother, was deported first to Janowska and then to Buchenwald and Mauthausen .
- In Darkness ,film by Agnieszka Holland 2011, nominated for the award Oscar in June based on the novel by Robert Marshall “In the sewers of Lvov”. 7
- Robert Marshall, In the Sewers of Lvov: A Heroic Story of Survival from the Holocaust . New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Leopold Socha
- Back to top↑ Mały Rocznik Statystyczny 1939 (Polish statistical yearbook of 1939), GUS , Warsaw, 1939
- Back to top↑ Stefan Szende, The Promise Hitler Kept , London 1945, p. 124
- Back to top↑ The statistical data compiled on the basis of “Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland” by Virtual Shtetl Museum of the History of the Polish Jews , as well as “Getta Żydowskie,” by Gedeon , (in Polish ) And “Ghetto List” by Michael Peters at www.deathcamps.org/occupation/ghettolist.htm. Accessed July 12, 2011.
- Back to top↑ Filip Friedman, Zagłada Żydów lwowskich (Extermination of the Jews of Lwów)
- Back to top↑ http://www.adl.org/children_holocaust/story_krystyna.asp
- Back to top↑ http://blogs.indiewire.com/thompsononhollywood/agnieszka_hollands_in_darkness_selected_as_polish_candidate_for_oscars#.T_2PY45FvTc
- Back to top↑ http://www.bookdepository.com/Sewers-Lvov-Robert-Marshall/9780006375128
- Aharon Weiss, Encyclopaedia of the Holocaust, vol. 3, pp. 928-931.
- Marek Herman, From the Alps to the Red Sea . Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad Publishers -1985. Pp. 14-60
- David Kahane, Lvov Ghetto Diary . Amherst, 1990. ISBN 0-87023-726-8
- Dr Filip Friedman, Zagłada Żydów lwowskich , Centralna Żydowska Komisja Historyczna, Centralny Komitet Żydów Polskich, Nr 4, źódź 1945
- Weiss, Jakob, New York: Alderbrook Press, 2010 The Lemberg Mosaic .
- Thomas Sandkühler: Endlösung in Galizien. Der Judenmord in Ostpolen und die Rettungsinitiativen Berthold Beitz 1941-1944 . Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1996, ISBN 3-8012-5022-9 .
- Dieter Pohl: National Sozialistische Judenverfolgung in Ostgalizien, 1941-1944. Oldenbourg, München 1997, ISBN 3-486-56233-9 .
- Leon W. Wells: Ein Sohn Hiobs , Übers. Aus d. Engl. Von H. Th. Asbeck. München: C. Hanser 1963
- Tatiana Berenstein: Eksterminacja ludnosci zydowskiej w dystrykcie Galicja (1941-1943). “Bulletin of the Jewish Historical Insitute in Warsaw”, 1967.
- Wlodzimierz Bonusiak: Malopolska Wschodnia pod rzadami Trzeciej Rzeszy (Eastern Malopolska Under the Rule of the Third Reich). Rzeszow 1990.
- Aleksander Kruglov: Deportacja ludnosci zydowskiej z Dystryktu Galicja of the obozu zaglady w Belzcu. (The Deportation of the Jewish Population from Galicia District to the Death Camp in Belzec): “Bulletin of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw”, No. 3 (1989).
- Thomas Sandkühler: “Endlösung” in Galizien. Der Judenmord in Ostpolen und die Rettungsinitiative von Berthold Beitz 1941-1944. Bonn 1996.
- Simon Wiesenthal – Justice not Vengeance. London 1989
- Wikimedia Commons has media related to Leopolis Ghetto .