Gustav von Kahr

Gustav von Kahr ( Weißenburg , 29 of November of 1862 – Dachau , 30 of June of 1934 ), from 1911 Gustav Ritter von Kahr , it was a political German who had an outstanding during the role Putsch in Munich in November 1923.

Biography

Political career

Born in Bavaria , he studied Law and practiced as a lawyer before entering politics. It had contacts with the monarchist and catholic groups of Bavaria although it was Protestant. In 1917 he was appointed provincial governor in Bavaria, a post that was removed after the November revolution that took place the following year, coicidiendo with the end of World War I and the establishment of the Weimar Republic . In 1920 he was appointed prime minister of Bavaria, a position from which he favored right-wing nationalist groups, and even movements that sought to separate Bavaria from Germany. After the decree of protection of the Republic promulgated by the government of Berlin, Kahr resigned in 1921 .

However, in September 1923 Germany and Bavaria were in a very difficult situation in the midst of economic crisis and with a population devastated by the galloping hyperinflation . In that context, Minister-President Eugen Ritter von Knilling of the Bavarian People ‘s Party (BVP) declared the state of emergency and appointed von Kahr Staatskomissar ; From that moment it happened to control Bavaria, next to other military and politicians, almost of dictatorial form. 1 Along with the head of the Bavarian state police, Colonel Hans Ritter von Seisser , and Reichswehr general Otto von Lossow , formed a government triumvirate.

Putsch of Munich

After the Franco-Belgian Occupation of the Ruhr at the beginning of 1923, throughout that year numerous military and coup groups tried to emulate the March on Rome of Mussolini with a “March on Berlin”. Among those sectors were General Erich Ludendorff and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Adolf Hitler . Hitler and Ludendorff showed their support for Kahr and his triumvirate, but Kahr already had his own plans: he had planned to establish a nationalist dictatorship with Seisser and Lossow, and without the support of Hitler. 2 Kahr, in fact, warned other “patriotic” and nationalist groups to refrain from any independent action. 3 In fact Kahr was a convinced ultraconservative nationalist, 4 and also sought to overthrow the government of Berlin. Nevertheless, after severe and repeated warnings of the general Hans von Seeckt against to lead some blow, the triumvirate formed by Kahr, Lossow and Seisser became discouraged and it fell behind. This was not to Hitler’s liking. 5

Hitler was determined to take action before the situation stabilized and support for a possible coup against the Berlin government disappeared. 6 On November 8, Hitler and the SA stormed the Bürgerbräukeller , one of the great breweries in Munich, where Kahr was giving a speech to 3,000 people. Hitler interrupted the speech, announced that the national revolution had begun and the formation of a new government with Ludendorff. Wielding his weapon, Hitler demanded the support of Kahr, Seisser, and Lossow. 7 Both Kahr and his two military helpers were put under arrest at the brewery, but shortly thereafter managed to escape and organize the response to Hitler’s coup. 8 As the Nazis spread through the streets and occupied positions, without Hitler being aware of it, Kahr and his associates mobilized the loyal troops. The following day, when Hitler and his followers went to the Bavarian War Ministry, they found a barrier formed by policemen, and after a short shooting were dispersed. 9 16 Nazis and four police officers were killed. 10 Kahr’s response to Hitler’s coup meant that he lost the support of Bavarian right-wing and nationalist forces.

In 1924 , known his first support to the failed coup, was pressured to leave the position by the authorities.

Assassination

During the ” night of the long knives “, the 30 of June of 1934 , was kidnapped from his apartment by men of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and tortured while heading to Dachau concentration camp . His abduction was due to his “betrayal” during the Putsch of the Brewery in 1923. Shortly before his arrival in Dachau, Kahr was assassinated following the orders of Theodor Eicke , the commander of the field. The murder was probably perpetrated by Johann Kantschuster ( de ). 11 12

References

  1. Back to top↑ Anthony Read (2010). The Disciples of the Devil: The Inner Circle of Hitler , Ocean, ISBN-9786074002812 , p. 81
  2. Back to top↑ Ian Kershaw (2008). Hitler: A Biography , New York: WW Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-06757-2 , p. 126
  3. Back to top↑ Ian Kershaw (2008). Hitler: A Biography , New York: WW Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-06757-2 , p. 127
  4. Back to top↑ Deuerlein, Ernst (1962). «Der Hitler Putsch: Bayerische Dokumente zum 8./9 November 1923». Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags- Anstalt. P. 238.
  5. Back to top↑ Shirer, William (1988). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich . New York: Ballantine Books. Pp. 99-102.
  6. Back to top↑ Ian Kershaw (2008). Hitler: A Biography , New York: WW Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-06757-2 , p. 125
  7. Back to top↑ Ian Kershaw (2008). Hitler: A Biography , New York: WW Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-06757-2 , p. 128
  8. Back to top↑ Shirer, William L. (1990) [1961]. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich . Simon & Schuster. P. 109. ISBN  0-671-72868-7 .
  9. Back to top↑ Ian Kershaw (2008). Hitler: A Biography , New York: WW Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-06757-2 , pp. 130-131
  10. Back to top↑ Ian Kershaw (2008). Hitler: A Biography , New York: WW Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-06757-2 , pp. 111-113
  11. Back to top↑ Otto Gritschneder (1993). Der Führer hat Sie zum Tode verurteilt … , München, ISBN 3-406-37651-7 , p. 136
  12. Back to top↑ Johannes Tuchel (1991). Konzentrationslager . Boppard am Rhein, ISBN 3-7646-1902-3 , p. 179