Annelies Marie Frank , known in Spanish as Anne Frank ( Frankfurt , December of June of 1929 – Bergen-Belsen , March 1945 ), 1 Note 1 was a girl Jewish German, known worldwide thanks to the Diary of Anne Frank , editing in book form of his diary, where he recorded the nearly two and a half years he spent in hiding with her family and four other people, from the Nazis in Amsterdam ( Netherlands ) during World War II . His family was captured and taken to various German concentration camps .
The only survivor of the hidden eight was Otto Frank , his father. Ana was sent to the Nazi concentration camp of Auschwitz on 2 of September of 1944 and later to the concentration camp of Bergen-Belsen , where she died of typhus in March 1945 , just days before he was released. 3 In 1947, just two years after the end of the war, Otto published the diary under the title La casa de atras (in Dutch , Het Achterhuis ).
Annelies Marie Frank was born in Frankfurt ( Hesse , Germany ), and was the second daughter of Otto Frank ( December of maypole of 1889 – 19 of August of 1980 ) and his wife, Edith Hollander ( 16 of January of 1900 – 6 January of 1945 ), a family of Jewish Germans, whose father, Otto, had participated as a lieutenant in the German Army in the First World War . She had an older sister, Margot ( 16 as February as 1926 – 9 as March as 1945 ). Together with his family, he had to move to the city of Amsterdam , fleeing from the Nazis . There his parents gave him a newspaper at the age of thirteen. Shortly thereafter, his family had to hide in a hiding place, the Achterhuis or “Annex of Back”, as he called it in his diary, located in an old building in the Prinsengracht, a channel in the western side of Amsterdam, and whose door It was hidden behind a shelf. There they lived during the German occupation, from the 9 of July of 1942 until the 4 of August of 1944 .
In the hiding place were eight people: his parents, Otto and Edith Frank; She and her older sister Margot; Fritz Pfeffer, a Jewish dentist (whom Ana gave the name of Albert Dussel in his Journal ), and the van Pels family (identified as van Daan in the Journal ), formed by Hermann and Auguste van Pels and their son Peter . During those years, Ana wrote her Diary , in which she described her fear of living hidden for years, her nascent feelings for Peter, conflicts with her parents, and her vocation as a writer. A few months before being discovered, he began to rewrite his Journal with the idea of publishing it after the war.
Ana, his family and entourage were arrested by the Grüne Polizei the 4 of August of 1944 and one month later, on September 2, the whole family was moved by train from Westerbork (camp in northeast Netherlands) to the Field Of concentration of Auschwitz , trip that took them three days. Meanwhile , Miep Gies and Bep Voskuijl , two of the people who protected them while they were hiding, found and kept the Journal and other papers of Ana.
Since his capture, it was believed that the family was betrayed by a collaborator of the Gestapo ; However, there are investigations stating that the occupants’ discovery was carried out casually, as SS agents were investigating illegal employment offenses in the building, and that prosecution of Jews was not their goal. 4
Ana, Margot and Edith Frank, the van Pels family and Fritz Pfeffer did not survive the Nazi concentration camps (although Auguste van Pels died during the marches between concentration camps). Margot and Anna spent a month in Auschwitz II-Birkenau and then were sent to Bergen-Belsen , where they died of typhus in March 1945 , shortly before the liberation. Only Otto managed to leave the Holocaust alive. 3 Miep gave him the diary, which he would edit in order to publish it with the title Diary of Anne Frank , which has already been printed in 70 languages .
Memorial in honor of Anne and Margot Frank is located at the site corresponding to the barrack where they died in the mass grave was concentration camp of Bergen-Belsen .
Period reviewed in the newspaper
Before you hide
At the age of thirteen, on June 12, 1942, Ana received a small notebook that had pointed to her father in a showcase a few days before. Although it is an autograph book , plastered in red and black checkered cloth, with a small lock on the front, Ana had already decided she would use it as a journal. He began to write in it almost immediately, describing himself and his family, as well as his daily life at home and at school. In the absence of a “friend of the soul,” according to Ana, she wrote to her diary as if she were addressing a friend. She called Kitty to her diary and used “Dear Kitty” as an introductory formula in direct allusion to Kathe Zgyedie, a classmate who was affectionately called Kitty. He wrote letters about his class results, his friends, the guys he liked, and the places he preferred to visit in his neighborhood. Although these early writings in her diary show that her life was in many ways the life typical of a schoolgirl, she also outlines the changes that are taking place since the German occupation. Some references seem casual and without great emphasis; However, in some parts it describes in greater detail the oppression that is increasing every day. He wrote about the stars that all Jews were required to wear in public, and also listed some of the restrictions and persecutions imposed on the daily lives of the Jewish population of Amsterdam.
On July 5, 1942, Margot Frank received a notice ordering her to appear for deportation to a labor camp. Anna was then informed of a plan that Otto had prepared with her most trusted employees, who had known Edith and Margot for a few days. The family would hide in camouflaged rooms at the company’s premises in Prinsengracht , a street on the edge of one of Amsterdam’s canals .
Life in the achterhuis or “annex”
On July 9, 1942, the family moved to the prepared hideaway and their old apartment was left in disorder to make them think that it had been suddenly abandoned. Otto Frank left a note from which it could be deduced that they had managed to escape to Switzerland . Since Jews could not use public transport, they had to walk several kilometers from their home to the shelter, each carrying all the clothes they could, since they could not run the risk of being seen with luggage. The achterhuis ( Dutch huis meaning ‘house’ and achter , ‘back’ or ‘back’) was a three-storey space at the back of the building with access to a courtyard behind the offices of Opekta. On the first level there were two small rooms, with an ensuite bathroom on which was a large room, with a smaller one attached. From that smaller room he climbed toward the attic . The door of the achterhuis was hidden behind a shelf so it could not be seen. Ana would later refer to this space as the secret annex . The main building, located one block from Westerkerk , was a banal building, typical of the neighborhoods of the west of Amsterdam.
Victor Kugler (in former editions named as Kraler), Johannes Kleiman (Koophuis), Miep Gies and Elisabeth Bep Voskuijl were the only employees who knew of the hideout and, along with Jan, the husband of Gies and Johannes Hendrik Voskuijl, the father of Bep Voskuijl, were the ones who helped the Franks survive during their confinement. They were the only contact between the outside and the occupants of the house, and kept them informed of news of war and political events. They were also the providers of everything necessary for the security and survival of the family; The supply of food became increasingly difficult as time passed. Ana wrote about the dedication and the efforts to raise their spirits during the most dangerous moments. All were aware that giving shelter to Jews was at that time painful to death .
At the end of July, they were joined by the Van Pels (Van Daan) family: Hermann, Auguste, and Peter, 16, and later in November, Fritz Pfeffer (Albert Dussel), a dentist and family friend. Ana wrote about how good it was to have other people to talk to, but the tensions quickly appeared in this group of people who had to live together in this hiding place. After sharing her room with Pfeffer, Ana ended up considering it unbearable, and fought with Auguste van Pels, whom he considered out of their minds. Her relationship with her mother became difficult too, and Ana wrote that she felt she had little in common with her as her too abstracted mother. Sometimes he argued with Margot, and wrote about an unexpected bond that had developed between them, although the closest he felt to his father. Later, he also began to appreciate the kindness of Peter van Pels , and even came to have romantic feelings.
Ana spent most of her time reading and studying, while continuing to write in her diary. In addition to narrating past events, Ana wrote about her feelings, beliefs and ambitions, issues she did not talk about with others. Feeling more confident about her writing, at the same time that she grew and matured, she wrote about more abstract themes, such as her beliefs in God , or about how she defined human nature . He wrote regularly until her final entry, the 1 as August as 1944 .
Arrest and death
On the morning of 4 August as as 1944 the Grüne Polizei raided the achterhuis . Originally it was believed that a Gestapo informant gave notice of the hideout, but recent research mentions that it is possible that the discovery was given casually. 4 Led by Sergeant Protection Corps (SS) Karl Silberbauer of IVB4 Section of the Security Service (SD) , the group had at least three members of the Security Police. The tenants were introduced in trucks and transferred for questioning. Victor Kugler and Johannes Kleiman were imprisoned, but Miep Gies and Bep Voskuijl were allowed to leave. Later they would return to the achterhuis , where they found Ana’s notes scattered on the ground. They collected them, as well as several family photo albums, and Gies set out to return them to Anna when the war was over.
They took the members of the house to a camp in Westerbork . Apparently a transit camp where up to that time more than 100 000 Jews had passed, on 2 September the group was deported, in which it would be their last transfer, from Westerbork to the Auschwitz concentration camp . After three days of travel they arrived at their destination, and the men and women were separated according to their sex, in order not to see each other again. Of the 1,019 newcomers, 549 – including children under the age of 15 – were selected and sent directly to the gas chambers , where they were killed. Ana had turned 15 three months earlier and fought, and although all of the achterhuis survived the selection, Ana believed that her father had been killed.
Along with the other women not selected for immediate death, Ana was forced to remain naked to disinfect her, shaved her head and tattooed an identification number on her arm. During the day they used women to perform forced labor, and at night they were crowded into refrigerated barracks. Diseases spread rapidly, and in a short time Ana ended up with crusted skin.
On 28 October the selection began to relocate the women in Bergen-Belsen . More than 8,000 women, including Anne Frank, Margot Frank and Auguste van Pels, were relocated, but Edith Frank was left behind. Shops were set up to house the influx of prisoners, including Ana and Margot. With the increase in population, the death rate due to diseases increased rapidly. Ana was able to meet briefly with two friends, Hanneli Pick Goslar (called “Lies” in the newspaper) and Nanette Blitz, who survived the war. They told how Ana, naked except for a piece of blanket, explained that, infested with lice , she had stripped of her clothes. They described her as bald, emaciated and trembling, but in spite of her illness she told them that she was more concerned about Margot, whose condition seemed more serious. Goslar and Blitz did not get to see Margot, who remained in her litter, too weak. Also, Ana told them that they were alone, and that her parents had died.
In March 1945, an epidemic of typhus spread throughout the countryside; Is estimated to have killed 17,000 prisoners. The witnesses later reported that Margot, weakened as she was, fell from her litter and died as a result of the coup, and that a few days later Ana also died. A few weeks later the camp would be liberated by British troops , the 15 as April as 1945 .
After the war, of the approximately 110,000 Jews who were deported from the Netherlands during the Nazi occupation, only 5,000 survived. Of the eight renters of the achterhuis , only Ana’s father survived. Herman van Pels was gassed upon the group’s arrival at Auschwitz-Birkenau , the 6 as September as 1944 . His wife Auguste died between 9 April and 8 May 1945, in Germany or Czechoslovakia . His son Peter died on May 5, 1945 in the concentration camp at Mauthausen , Austria , after being transferred on foot from Auschwitz.
Dr. Friedrich Pfeffer died on December 20, 1944 at the Neuengamme concentration camp . Anne’s mother, Edith Hollander, died on 6 of January of 1945 , in Birkenau . Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler , business associates of Otto Frank who helped the former while they remained hidden, were arrested for helping the Frank family. Both were sentenced to perform an Arbeitseinsatz (work service) in Germany , and survived the war.
The Diary of Anne Frank
Publication of the newspaper
Otto Frank survived and returned to Amsterdam. He was informed of the death of his wife and the transfer of his daughters to Bergen-Belsen, hoping that they would survive. In July 1945, the Red Cross confirmed the deaths of Anne and Margot, and it was only then that Miep Gies gave her the Diary . After reading it, Otto commented that he had not realized how Ana had kept such an accurate and well-written record of their stay together. Trying to fulfill her wish posthumously expressed in the Journal to become a writer, decided to try to publish it. When asked many years later about his first reaction, he simply replied: “He never knew that my little Ana was so deep.”
Ana’s Journal begins as a private expression of her private thoughts, expressing the intention of never allowing others to read it. He describes candidly his life, his family and companions and his situation, while he begins to recognize his ambition to write novels and publish them. In the summer of 1944 he heard a radio broadcast by Gerrit Bolkestein, a member of the Dutch government in exile, who said that at the end of the war he would create a public record of the oppression suffered by the population of his country under German occupation. He mentioned the publication of letters and journals, so Ana decided that he would contribute to his Diary . He began to correct his writing, to eliminate sections and to rewrite others, in view of a possible publication. To his original notebook, he attached several additional notebooks and single sheets. He created pseudonyms for the members of the group and their benefactors. The van Pels family became Hermann, Petronella and Peter van Daan; Fritz Pfeffer was renamed Albert Dussel. Otto Frank used the original version of the Journal , known as “version A”, and the corrected version, known as “version B”, to produce the first version to be published. He withdrew some passages, especially those in which he referred to his wife in unflattering terms, as well as sections in which he spoke of intimate details of his blossoming sexuality . He restored the true identities of his family, but retained the pseudonyms of other people.
Frank took the diary to the historian Anne Romein, who tried to publish it, without success. She then passed it on to her husband Jan Romein , who wrote an article about the book entitled “Kinderstem” in the newspaper Het Parool on April 3, 1946. He wrote that the newspaper ” Paused in the voice of a child, shows all the hatreds of fascism , better than all the evidence of the Nuremberg trials together. ” 5His article attracted the attention of the editors and the Journal was published in Holland in 1947 by the publisher Contact of Amsterdam under the title Het Achterhuis ( The House of the Behind ). It was reprinted in 1950. In April 1955 appeared the first translation of the Spanish-language newspaper under the title Las habitaciones de atras (translated by Mª Isabel Iglesias, Garbo publisher, Barcelona).
Albert Hackett wrote a play based on the Diary , premiered in New York in 1955, which received the Pulitzer Prize for Theater . The piece was taken to the cinema in 1959 with the title The diary of Anne Frank . It starred actress Millie Perkins , and Shelley Winters , who characterized Mrs. Van Pels, won the Oscar for Best Supporting Actress, which she delivered to the Anne Frank House. The film was well received and won two other Oscars . However, it did not become a blockbuster, though it sparked such attention that increased worldwide interest in the book. El Diario grew in popularity with the passing of the years, and today it is compulsory reading in high school in several countries and in several states of the United States . In February 2008 was released 6 in Madrid the musical El Diario de Ana Frank – A Song to Life . This is the first time that the Anne Frank Foundation has ceded the rights to a company to represent a musical about Anne Frank and her work around the world.
In 1986, a critical edition of the Journal was published . 7 This edition compares original sections with sections modified by the parent, and includes a discussion regarding their authenticity as well as historical data about their family.
In 1988, Cornelis Suijk – former director of the Anne Frank Foundation and president of the United States Holocaust Education Foundation – announced that he had obtained five pages that had been removed by Otto Frank from the Journal prior to its publication. Suijk claims that Otto Frank delivered those pages shortly before his death in 1980. The deleted pages contain very critical remarks by Anne Frank about the marriage relationship between her parents and her mother. 8 Suijk’s decision to claim copyright over the five pages in order to finance his foundation in the United States caused controversy. The Dutch Institute of War Documentation, the present owner of the manuscript, requested that the missing pages be delivered to him. In 2000 the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science agreed to donate $ 300,000 to the Suijk Foundation and the pages were delivered in 2001. 9 Since then, they have been included in the new editions of the Journal .
In 2004, a new book was published in Holland, entitled Mooie zinnen-boek ( Book of Beautiful Phrases ), which contained fragments of books and short poems that Ana collected, on the advice of her father, during her stay in the achterhuis .
Compliment to Anne Frank and her diary
In her introduction to the first issue of the Journal in the United States, Eleanor Roosevelt described it as “one of the most wise and moving comments I have ever read about the war and its impact on humans.” The Soviet writer Ilya Ehrenburg later said: “a voice that speaks for the six million, the voice not of a sage or a poet, but of an ordinary girl.” 10 As the size of Anne Frank has grown as a writer and humanist , she has become a symbol of the Holocaust and more widely as a representative of the persecution. Hillary Rodham Clinton , in her speech to host an Elie Wiesel Humanitarian Award in 1994, cited Anne Frank’s Diary and said that she “awakens us in the face of the madness of indifference and the terrible price it entails for our young people” With recent events in Sarajevo , Somalia and Rwanda . 11 After receiving the Anne Frank Foundation’s humanitarian award in 1994, Nelson Mandela addressed a crowd in Johannesburg , saying that he had read Anne Frank’s diary while in prison and that he “got a big breath out of it.” He compared Anne’s struggle against Nazism with his own against apartheid , drawing a parallel line between the two philosophies with the remark “because these beliefs are evidently false, and because they were and will always be challenged by the likes of Anne Frank, Are destined to fail. ” 12
In the final message of Melissa Müller’s biography of Anne Frank, Miep Gies tried to dissipate what she believed was a growing wrong belief, “Anne symbolizes the six million victims of the Holocaust,” writing “life and Ana’s death was her own destiny, an individual destiny that was repeated six million times. Anna can not, and should not, represent the many individuals whom the Nazis stole their lives … But their fate helps us accept the immense loss suffered by the world because of the Holocaust. ”
The Journal has also been praised for its literary merit. Commenting on Anna’s writing style, American Jew Meyer Levin, who worked with Otto Frank in the dramatization of the newspaper shortly after its publication, 13 praised him for “maintaining the tension of a well-constructed novel”, 10 while the poet John Berryman wrote that it was a unique representation, not only of adolescence but also of the “mysterious and fundamental process of a child who becomes an adult, as in reality.” 10 His biographer Melissa Müller said that he wrote “in a precise, trustworthy and economical style, astounding in his frankness.” His writing is largely a study of characters, and examines each person in his circle with a sly, inflexible eye. He is occasionally cruel and often partial, especially in his depictions of Fritz Pfeffer and his own mother, and Müller explains that he channeled the “normal mood swings in adolescence” through his work. Her examination of herself and of her surroundings is maintained for a long period in an introspective, analytical, highly self-critical way, and in moments of frustration she recounts the battle within herself between the “good Anna” she wishes to be , And the “bad” he believes to be. Otto Frank reminded his editor explaining why he thought the Diary would read so widely, with the comment “he said that the Journal covers so many stages of life that every reader can find something to stir him.”
Negative challenges and legal actions
Since its publication he has been determined to discredit the newspaper, and since the mid-1970s David Irving ( Holocaust denialist ) has been constant in asserting that the newspaper would not be authentic. 14 According to denialist Robert Faurisson , the diary was not actually written by Anne Frank, since it contains pages written with a pen , invented in 1938 and patented in Argentina on June 10, 1943, but would not have been introduced in Germany until a Year later, when Ana had already been transferred to the concentration camp (2 September 1944) and her Journal was finished. However, the various studies carried out in the newspaper have shown that the pages containing pen annotations are two, added in 1960 by a graphologist who studied the text. 15 In 2006, the Federal Bureau of Criminal Investigation (BKA), which in 1980 had certified the existence of these two pages written on a pen, issued a statement explaining that this four-page study can not in any way be used to cast doubt on the Authenticity of the Journal. fifteen
The continuing public statements by those who deny the Holocaust led Teresien da Silva to comment in 1999 , on behalf of the Anne Frank House, that “for many rightist extremists [Ana] it proves to be an obstacle. His testimony of the persecution of the Jews and his death in a concentration camp are blocking the way for the rehabilitation of National Socialism . ”
Since the 1950s , Holocaust denial has been a criminal offense in some European countries, and law has been used to prevent an increase in neo-Nazi activity . In 1959 Otto Frank took legal action in Lübeck against Lothar Stielau, a college professor and former member of the Hitler Youth who published a student document in which he described the Journal as a forgery. The court examined the newspaper and concluded in 1960 that it was authentic. Stielau retracted his earlier claim, and Otto Frank did not take his claim any further.
In 1958 a group of demonstrators challenged Simon Wiesenthal during a representation of Anne Frank ‘s Diary in Vienna assuring that Anne Frank never existed, and asked him to prove his existence by finding the man who had arrested her. He started looking for Karl Silberbauer and found it in 1963. When he was interviewed, Silberbauer immediately admitted his role, and identified Anne Frank in a photograph as one of the people who were arrested. He provided a full version of events and recalled emptying a suitcase full of papers on the floor. His statement corroborated the version of events that had previously been presented by witnesses such as Otto Frank.
In 1976 Otto Frank took action against Heinz Roth of Frankfurt, who published pamphlets indicating that the Diary was a forgery. The judge decided that if he published new statements along these lines he would be sentenced to a fine of DM 500 000 and would face a six-month prison sentence. Two cases were dismissed by the German courts in 1978 and 1979 under the right to freedom of expression , in view of the fact that the complaint had not been carried out by any “injured party”. The court stated in each case that if a new request was made from an aggrieved party such as Otto Frank, proceedings could be opened for defamation .
The controversy peaked in 1980 with the arrest and trial of two neo-Nazis, Ernst Römer and Edgar Geiss, who were tried and found guilty of creating and distributing papers denouncing the falsification of the Journal , followed by a complaint By Otto Frank. During the appeal, a team of historians examined the documents in agreement with Otto Frank, and determined their authenticity.
With the death of Otto Frank in 1980, the original newspaper, including letters and leaflets, was left in the hands of the Netherlands War Documentation Institute, which conducted a forensic study of the newspaper in 1986 Ministry of Justice of the Netherlands. After collating the handwriting with specimens of proven authorship, they determined that they coincided, and that the paper, glue, and ink employed were easy to acquire during the period in which it was alleged that the Journal had been written. His final determination was that the Journal was authentic. On 23 March 1990 the Hamburg Regional Court confirmed its authenticity.
On May 3, 1957 a group of citizens, including Otto Frank, established the Anne Frank Foundation in an effort to save the Achterhuis building in Prinsengracht from demolition, and to make it accessible to the public. Otto Frank insisted that the purpose of the foundation would be to encourage contact and communication between young people of different cultures, religions and races, and to oppose intolerance and racial discrimination .
The House of Anne Frank opened its doors on May 3, 1960. It consists of the Opekta warehouse , the offices and the achterhuis , unfurnished , so that visitors could walk freely through all the rooms. Some personal relics of their former tenants are preserved, for example the photographs of movie stars stuck on the wall by Ana, a portion of the wallpaper on which Otto Frank marked the height of his daughters as they grew and a map on the wall above The one that registered the advance of the allied forces , all now protected by plexiglass sheets . From the small room that was once home to Peter van Pels, a hallway connects the building with its neighboring buildings, also acquired by the Foundation. These other buildings keep the Diary as well as non-permanent exhibits describing various aspects of the Holocaust and more contemporary displays of racial intolerance in various parts of the world. It has become one of the main tourist attractions in the Netherlands , and more than half a million people visit it every year.
In 1963 Otto Frank and his second wife, Fritzi ( Elfriede Markowitz-Geiringer ), established the Anne Frank Fonds as a charitable organization, based in Basel , Switzerland . The Fonds raise money to donate it to the causes that need it. After his death, Otto willed the rights to the Journal this institution, with the proviso that the first 80,000 Swiss francs produced as profit every year to be distributed among his heirs, and that any income above that amount were to be used to Fonds For use in projects that its managers consider worthy of it. It provides, on an annual basis, funding for the medical treatment of the Righteous among nations . She has made efforts to educate young people against racism and has loaned some of Anne Frank ‘s manuscripts to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, DC for an exhibition in 2003 . His annual report for the same year gave some account of his efforts to make contributions globally, with his support for projects in Germany, Israel , India , Switzerland , the United Kingdom and the United States. 16
Currently the Anne Frank House has five partner organizations: 17 in the United Kingdom , Germany , the United States , Austria and Argentina, as well as facilitating the educational activities of the Anne Frank House (such as the Anne Frank A history in force “) carry out their own educational activities.
Related to the Holocaust and World War II
- Remembering Anne Frank – a documentary film made in 1995 about the life of Anne Frank.
- Auschwitz concentration camp
- Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
- Miep Gies
- Karl Silberbauer ( SS Petty Officer , who arrested Anne Frank and his family)
- Corrie ten Boom ( Survivor )
- Etty Hillesum – a Jewish woman who wrote a newspaper during the war.
- Rutka Laskier
- Hanneli Goslar ( Survivor )
- Susanne Ledermann
- Tanya Savicheva – a Russian girl who recorded the murder of her family for a period of six months during the Siege of Leningrad .
- 5535 Annefrank – an asteroid named in its memory.
- Neutral Milk Hotel – American folk band whose album released in 1998, In the Airplane Over the Sea , was inspired by the story of Anne Frank.
- The tree of Anne Frank , tree that describes in his diary.
- ↑ Jump to:a b An investigation by Anne Frank House in 2015 revealed that Frank could have died in February 1945 and not in March as it was taken over by the Dutch authorities for a long time 2
- ↑ Jump to:a b «Historical memorials of concentration camps (Anne Frank)» .
- Back to top↑ «Anne Frank’s last months; New research sheds new light on Anne Frank’s last months ” (in English) . Anne Frank House, Anne Frank Stichting. March 31, 2015 . Retrieved on April 11, 2015 .
- ↑ Jump to:a b «Find Anna Frank’s marbles» . La Prensa Gráfica (San Salvador). February 8, 2014 . Accessed November 22, 2014 .
- ↑ Jump to:a b Afp (December 17, 2016). “Anne Frank could have been discovered by chance: study .” Mexico . Retrieved on December 17, 2016 .
- Back to top↑ « The publication of the diary: Het Parool » annefrank.org ( broken link available on Internet Archive , seehistory and latest version ).
- Back to top↑ “The first musical of the story about the life of Anne Frank will premiere in Madrid in 2008” .
- Back to top↑ Publications by the Institute Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (NIOD). ( Broken linkavailable in Internet Archive , see history and latest version ).
- Back to top↑ (in English) “Five Precious Pages Renew Wrangling Over Anne Frank.” September 10, 1998. The New York Times . Accessed November 22, 2014.
- Back to top↑ Anne Frank’s diary now complete Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur in Wetenschap ( broken linkavailable in Internet Archive , see the history and the latest version ).
- ↑ Skip to:a b c Anne Frank (Annelies Marie Frank) Edwardsly (current events affecting America’s cops) ( broken link available in Internet Archive , see the history and the latest version ). (in English)
- Back to top↑ Clinton, Hillary Rodham (April 14, 1994). ” Remarks by the First Lady, Elie Wiesel Humanitarian Awards, New York ” ( Discourse ). Accessed January 30, 2005. (in English)
- Back to top↑ Address by President Nelson Mandela at the Johannesburg opening of the Anne Frank exhibition at the African Africa National Congress Museum ( broken link available on Internet Archive , see history andlatest version ).
- Volver arriba↑ http://web.archive.org/web/http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0411/is_n2_v46/ai_19680329(enlace roto disponible en Internet Archive; véase el historial y la última versión). enlace irrecuperable.
- Back to top↑ «Shofar FTP Archives: people / f / frank.anne / Kuttner-rebuts-deniers» . Archived from the original on November 26, 2015 . Consulted in 2009 .
- ↑ Jump to:a b Writing with pen . Official website of Anne Frank’s house.
- Back to top↑ ANNE FRANK-Fonds: 2003 annual report Switzerland: Anne Frank Fonds. ( Broken link available inInternet Archive , see history and latest version ).
- Back to top↑ Partner organizations Partners