Provida (English pro-life ) is the position of ethics and policy that affirms the defense of the human right to life are what the circumstances, supported by various associations and schools of thought. From the perspective of such associations, human life begins from the moment of conception , so that the zygote , the embryo and the fetus are considered as human persons. For this reason, practices such as euthanasia , human cloning , research with embryonic stem cells (not with adults) and, particularly, induced abortion are often opposed .
In the matter of the interruption of pregnancy, which is arguably the most notable field of action for these movements, the prospect is faced with pro-choice movements . The greatest controversy between both positions lies in the starting point of human life.
The term has been criticized as a ” framing political ‘terms used to validate the proper position while invalidates the opposite position. Thus, the terms “provided” or “pro-choice” imply support for widely shared values, such as the right to life and freedom, while suggesting that the opposition has to be “anti-life” or “promuerte” or ” Anti-choice “, respectively. 1 The Associated Press news agency prefers instead the terms “anti-abortion” and “right to abortion.” 2
The pro -life movements arise in the 70s and 80s of the twentieth century as a reaction to social and legal changes that occur in Western societies from the 60s : the legalization of contraception, the decriminalization of abortion, The creation of family planning units, the introduction of sex education in school curricula, the liberalization of sexual customs, the emergence of alternative forms to the traditional family, etc. It is usually placed his birth in the United States following the decision Roe v. Wade of the United States Supreme Court in 1973 decriminalized abortion on the grounds that the US Constitution “protects against state activity against privacy, including the guaranteed right of women to terminate their pregnancy.” At that time only 46% of respondents said they did not oppose “a law that allows women to go to the doctor during their first months,” while 60% approve 60%. 3
In the last two decades pro-life groups have been gaining ground in the United States and Europe. In the United States, its influence has reached Democratic Party voters, so that support for the 1973 Abortion Act has gone from 56% in 1995 to 41% in 2012. The leader of these pro-democracy Democrats is the former president Jimmy Carter who stated: “I have never believed that Jesus Christ would have allowed abortion” [ citation needed ] . The most important and resourceful groups are Focus on the Family and the Alliance Defense Fund . [ Citation needed ]
In Spain, the turning point for the development of the movements provided was the approval by the government of Rodríguez Zapatero of the new Law of Abortion of 2009 (a law of terms that replaced the one of 1985). This law raised a scientific manifesto against the law known as the Manifesto of Madrid , supported by more than 2,000 scientists, professors and intellectuals 4 from different branches of Biomedicine , Humanities and Social Sciences . In addition, different Spanish institutions such as the Official College of Physicians of Seville , 5 the Illustrious Medical Association of Madrid , 6 the National Commission of Spanish Bioethics , 7 and the Official College of Physicians of Cadiz 8 also signed their adherence to this manifesto.
Que existe sobrada evidencia científica de que la vida empieza en el momento de la fecundación: la Genética señala que la fecundación es el momento en que se constituye la identidad genética singular, la Biología celular explica que los seres pluricelulares se constituyen a partir de una única célula inicial y la Embriología describe el desarrollo embrionario y fetal, revelando cómo se desenvuelve sin solución de continuidad; que el cigoto, luego embrión y luego el feto, no forman parte de ningún órgano de la madre, sino que es la primera realidad corporal del ser humano, un ser nuevo y singular, distinto de su padre y su madre; que un aborto no es sólo la «interrupción voluntaria del embarazo» sino la «interrupción de una vida humana»Madrid Declaration of 2009
From that moment the demonstrations have been happening of repeated form. In fact, in May 2012 the groups provided Spanish as Hazteoir got Madrid to be the place where the World Congress of Families met, which included, among others, the bishop of Alcalá de Henares , Juan Antonio Reig Pla , and to whom also Attended the MEP of the Popular Party , Jaime Mayor Oreja . In that period, Spain has also seen the creation of multiple groups and associations provided in different social spheres.
The importance of the Dublin declaration 9 10 signed and signed by more than 900 specialists, gynecologists, doctors, nurses, midwives and pediatricians in the context of the international symposium on the health of the mother in September Of 2012. This statement reconciles the right to life of the unborn with the right of women to sexual health that many pro-choice groups use as a counterweight.
As researchers and physicians experienced in Gynecology and Obstetrics, we affirm that induced abortion – the deliberate destruction of the unborn – is not medically necessary to save a woman’s life. We hold that there is a fundamental difference between abortion and the necessary treatments that are done to save the mother’s life, even if those treatments result in the loss of life of the unborn child. We confirm that the prohibition of abortion in no way affects the availability of optimal care for the pregnant woman.Dublin Declaration 2012
On the other hand, in the year 2014, about 300 Spanish jurists from the academic, political and law practice, appeal to the State’s responsibility to protect fundamental rights with the reform of the abortion law through the manifesto of the Jurists 11 , 12 with the intention of initiating an open debate and reflection on the protection of the fundamental rights of the human being.
The conceived is an individual being, different from the mother although housed within the mother, as pointed out by the Constitutional Court in its Sentence 53/1985, which is protected by art. 15 of the Constitution at all stages of its development, so that the State must establish a system of norms, including criminal law, that will govern the life of the unborn and conceived. […] According to the constitutional doctrine and jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, abortion is not a right of women. The right to respect for private and family life, recognized in the Rome Convention, does not give rise to an alleged right to an abortion. The European Court of Human Rights itself has stated that “women’s right to privacy must be weighed against other conflicting rights, including the rights of the unborn child,” with States being free to provide the highest degree of protection To the life of the conceived.Manifesto of Jurists of 2014
Also, in 2015, a cross-section of health professionals recorded a medical manifesto against abortion, in response to the Chilean government’s first steps towards legalizing abortion. 13 14 Meanwhile, in Spain, demonstrations continue to take place before the government, through initiatives such as Every Life Matters. fifteen
According to the various movements provided “all human beings have the right to life “, understanding as human beings also the life born after fertilization: zygote , embryo and fetus . The movements provided generally understand that human life should be valued and respected from fertilization or from implantation to natural death. The present provided movement is normally, but not exclusively, associated with Christian morality , and has influenced certain branches of bioethical utilitarianism. 16
From the point of view provided, any deliberate destruction of human beings , understood as embryos or fetuses , is seen as a murder, something considered as ethical or morally wrong and as a crime. Such acts are not considered as mitigated by any belief or scientific thoughts or, in the case of abortion, with the completion of the problems of women with pregnancy unwanted dangerous or because such benefits would come from the death of another person. The pro -life associations are based on scientific currents 17 who claim that human life begins after fertilization, and that “the prohibition of abortion does not affect, in any way, the availability of optimal care of the pregnant woman.” In some cases, this belief extends to the opposition of aborting fetuses that might be non-viable, such as those suffering from anencephaly . In addition, euthanasia , or “assisted suicide”, as the associations call it, is also objected to in the belief that life is a “supreme good,” and that there are viable alternatives to suicide such as palliative care In case of terminal illnesses) and personalized, close and humane care in all cases.
Often partnerships are opposed to certain contraceptive methods , such as the pill and the IUD , including contraceptive pills , which prevent zygote implantation . This is because the defenders provided, as was said, that life begins with fertilization, 17 so these methods would be abortionists. 18 The Catholic Church recognizes this point of view. 19
Political and religious positions
One can not speak of a correlation between political or religious tendency and the position provided, because there are supporters and opposers to abortion in all tendencies; Take, for example, the existence of radical feminist groups and atheists provided , such as Feminists for Life , 20 Women Against Abortion 21 and Atheists for Life , 22 or the Movement of Parliamentarians And Rulers for Life, 23 which integrates people of diverse political, religious and cultural tendencies.
On the other hand, according to some experts, the Catholic movements can be distinguished into two large groups: [ citation needed ]
- The one that is identified with the positions of the Holy See . It is present throughout Europe and is the most visible in Spain , with organizations such as “Derecho a Vivir”, “Hazteoir” or “Spanish Family Forum”.
- The second is composed of the alliance between Catholic traditionalists of UK and Ireland with evangelicals Dutch , Swiss and Eastern European countries, and add some Christians Orthodox . A current responsible for recent initiatives against abortion in Romania and sex education in Bulgaria, and whose political arm would be the European Christian Political Movement . This group is the one that predominates in the United States.
Provided activism encompasses a variety of activities, from promoting thought provided to the general public, talking to government people, or approaching individuals individually; For example, by trying to discourage women who think of abortion, by distributing printed information or by providing counseling services. They also promote mass demonstrations and cultural exhibitions such as «Expovida (Expoaborto)». 24 The most common actions [citation needed ] of the group provided are the following:
- «Ecografías»: un tipo de activismo provida es otorgar gratuitamente ecografías a las mujeres embarazadas que estén considerando realizar un aborto con la esperanza de que la mujer embarazada, al ver las imágenes del feto, cambie de opinión. Hasta hace unos años, en Estados Unidos se solía otorgar financiación a los centros de crisis de embarazo, en los que se otorgan ecografías gratis.25 El Tribunal Supremo de Estados Unidos declaró nula una ley de Carolina del Norte que obligaba a las mujeres que querían abortar a hacerse una ecografía, que se les mostrase el sonograma y a escuchar una descripción del feto hecha por el médico.26
- «Chain of life»: it is a public demonstration that consists simply in standing in a row on the sidewalk holding signs with signs or phrases provided. Historically the most used message has been: “Abortion kills children”, but other messages have been generated such as: “Abortion hurts women”, “Do not abort, give it up for adoption.” In this chain no slogans are sung or sing, nor are streets blocked.
- “Rescues” / harassment : it is done by people who go against abortion clinics to try to convince women that abortion will offering viable alternatives. 27 This type of activism has been denounced as harassment and partnerships such as Operation Rescue, Pro-Life Action Network and Lambs of Crist employ direct confrontation tactics to prevent entry into abortion clinics. 28 Usually these people are forced by police to leave the place, and on some occasions they have also been arrested and convicted. Some clinics that were targeted specifically for this practice were forced to close.
- Manifestations: demonstrations are a very common resource used to claim the values provided by the population to the authorities that govern the country. 29
- Exhibitions: cultural exhibitions such as «Expovida (Expoaborto)» have been organized on many occasions, 24 which show people who come to the reality of abortion and the biological evolution of the embryo inside their mother’s body.
In the 1990s protests against abortion clinics in the US They became violent, initially with the murder of the abortionist doctor David Gunn in 1993. Various analysts provided defended the fact as the “execution of an abortionist / murderer”; On the other hand, there were also denunciations of this violence by other voices provided. 30 During this decade there were a total of seven murders of abortion doctors, in addition to 17 shootings without a deadly victim. 31 In 2009, another abortionist, George Tiller, was killed by a “religious fundamentalist” opposed to abortion, after suffering two previous attempts. 32 The violence, which also spread to other countries such as Canada, with events such as the explosion of bombs, arson, physical assaults, death threats, kidnapping, or robbery. But its typical form evolved from direct confrontations, face-to-face, into attacks by “solitary wolves” who acted committing crimes from unknown places and by surprise. 30 28
In Chile, the movement Provida has criticized the fact that its main leaders party members are right Independent Democratic Union (UDI), who justify or deny the violations of human rights committed during the military regime of Augusto Pinochet . In this sense, we criticize the inconsistency of defending the right to life that is yet to be born, but not the rights of those who are already alive. 33
- Right to life
- Reproductive Rights
- Prenatal development
- Culture of life
- Back to top↑ Holstein and Gubrium (2008). Handbook of Constructionist Research . Guilford Press.
- Back to top↑ Goldstein, Norm, ed. The Associated Press Stylebook . Philadelphia: Basic Books, 2007.
- Back to top↑ The Polling Report. Consulted 1/16/14
- Back to top↑ The World ; Efe (March 17, 2009). “Thousand Scientists and Intellectuals Sign Against Reform of Abortion Law .” Retrieved on June 18, 2009 . “A thousand recognized intellectuals support the so-called ‘Madrid Declaration’, a manifesto in which the signatories contribute” scientific and non-ideological reasons “to defend the right to life of the human being from the moment of fertilization.
- Back to top↑ The World (April 23, 2009). “The Medical College of Seville joins the Manifesto of Madrid against abortion .” Retrieved on June 18, 2009 . “The law of time limits, aggravates the current situation and disregards a society, which far from wanting a new law to legitimize a violent act for the unborn and its mother, calls for a regulation to stop the abuses and The fraud of Law of the centers where the abortions are practiced “.
- Back to top↑ El País ; EGS / SAA (11 June 2009). “The College of Physicians – Madrid – against abortion without paternal consent.” Retrieved on June 18, 2009 . ” Life begins with the fertilization of the ovum, at which time an individual living being created with its genetic map determined and with a life expectancy in the developed world of 80 years … there is no discontinuity, there is no No time when we could say that there was something prehuman and then a human being . “
- Back to top↑ Human rights and citizenship rights. “The national commission of bioethics recognizes that the nasciturus is a human being” .
- Back to top↑ General Council of Official Medical Associations of Spain, ed. (23 October 2009). “The Cadiz Medical Association recalls that conscientious objection is” expressly recognized “by the Constitutional Court . Accessed October 26, 2009 . « The Official College of Physicians of the Province of Cadiz has recalled that before the” absence of a homogeneous legislation “on conscientious objection, the General Council of Physicians’ Colleges has claimed that the new Sexual Health Law And Reproductive includes this objection to the health personnel. ‘.
- Back to top↑ international symposium on the health of the mother, ed. (26 October 2009). Declaration of Dublin . Retrieved on January 16, 2014 . ” […] direct abortion is not medically necessary to save a woman’s life. ‘.
- Back to top↑ InfoCatolica, ed. (13 September 2012). ‘Dublin Declaration: Direct abortion is not medically necessary to save a woman’s life’ . Retrieved on January 16, 2014 . ” […] direct abortion is not medically necessary to save a woman’s life. ‘.
- Back to top↑ La Razón, ed. (July 16, 2014). “About 300 jurists urge the protection of the unborn and of motherhood” . Retrieved on January 16, 2014 . ” Nearly 300 jurists have signed a manifesto in favor of opening a debate on the regulation of abortion based on the law and progress in the full recognition of the legal rights of the conceived and the social protection of women before motherhood. ‘.
- Back to top↑ Jurists and Rights, ed. (July 16, 2014). «Manifesto of jurists» . Retrieved on January 16, 2014 . ” For an open debate and reflection on the protection of fundamental rights. ‘.
- Back to top↑ Doctors of Chile present manifesto in defense of life and against abortion
- Back to top↑ Chilean doctors against abortion
- Back to top↑ [ http://www.lavanguardia.com/vida/20150129/54425238641/associaciones-provida-salen-a-calle-el-14-m-para-romper-silencio-sobre-aborto.html Associations provided To 14-M street to break silence on abortion]
- Back to top↑ Holland, S (2003) Bioethics: a Philosophical Introduction Cambridge, UK: Polity Press; New York: Distributed in the USA by Blackwell Pub
- ↑ Jump to:a b More than two thousand scientists subscribe to the Manifesto of Madrid , which considers that there is much scientific evidence that shows that life begins after fertilization
- Back to top↑ Finn, JT (April 23, 2005). « ” Birth Control “Pills cause early Abortions» . Pro-Life America – Facts on Abortion . Prolife.com . Accessed August 25, 2006 .
- Back to top↑ “Emergency” Contraception “and Early Abortion” . United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. August 1, 1998. Archived from the original on November 30, 2015 . Accessed August 25, 2006 .
- Back to top↑ Feminists for Life
- Back to top↑ Women against abortion
- Back to top↑ Atheist and Agnostic Pro-Life League
- Back to top↑ World Action of Parliamentarians and Rulers for Life and the Family
- ↑ Jump to:a b La Gaceta; Rocío Manzaneque (April 3, 2014). «A place against abortion 50 meters from the Congress.»
- Back to top↑ Grants Flow To Bush Allies On Social Issues
- Back to top↑ «North Carolina abortion ultrasound law rejected by US supreme court». The Guardian (in English) . June 15, 2015.
- Back to top↑ Poveda has already saved more than a thousand children who were going to be aborted
- ↑ Jump to:a b Winter, Aaron (2015). «Anti-Abortion Violence». In Jeffrey Ian Ross. Religion and Violence: An Encyclopedia of Faith and Conflict from Antiquity to the Present (in English) . Routledge. Pp. 43 secs. ISBN 9781317461098 .
- Back to top↑ First demonstration after withdrawal of abortion reform
- ↑ Jump to:a b Mason, Carol (2013). “From Protest to Retribution: The Guerrilla Politics of Pro-Life Violence.” In Kenton Worcester, Sally Avery Bermanzohn, Mark Ungar. Violence and Politics: Globalization’s Paradox (in English) . Routledge. Pp. 127 secs. ISBN 9781136701252 .
- Back to top↑ Maxwell, 2002 , p. 82.
- Back to top↑ Alandete , David (June 6, 2009). “George Tiller, an abortion doctor murdered in the United States.” The Country .
- Back to top↑ “The video parody of the UDI against abortion that irritated the party” . The counter. August 24, 2015 . Accessed on February 3, 2017 .