Miguel de Andrea

Miguel de los Santos Andrea ( Navarro , Buenos Aires , 5 of July of 1877 – Buenos Aires , 23 of June of 1960 ) was a Catholic priest Argentine . He was titular bishop of Temnos and auxiliary of Buenos Aires, and one of the inspirers of the Catholic Circles of Workers, and inspirer of the Christian Democracy .

Biography

Born in Navarro , Buenos Aires, the 5 of July of 1877 , son of Italian Catholic parents. He was the second of seven children.

At eleven years he defined his priestly vocation by entering the Seminary of Buenos Aires. In 1898 he was ordained a subdeacon. He graduated as a graduate and doctor at the Gregorian University in Rome . In the Pío Latino Americano College he was ordained a priest by the bishop of La Plata, Don Juan N. Terrero .

Applying the teachings of Pope Leo XIII in his encyclical Rerum Novarum ( 1891 ) on the social question and Graves de Communi Re (1901) on the right concept of Christian Democracy , as part of Social Christianity and distinguishing it from Social Democracy , Federico Grote , 1892 the Catholic Circles of Workers being its president in 1893 Santiago Gregorio O’Farrell 1 and in 1902 the Christian Democratic League . The First Manifesto of the Christian Democratic League contains the basic principles of social Christianity .

In 1900 the presbyter Miguel de Andrea pronounced his first sermon in the parochial church of his native town, in the middle of an auditorium of relatives and friends. In 1900 he was appointed prosecretary of the archbishopric of Buenos Aires and two years later chaplain of the convent of Santa Catalina . In 1904 he was private secretary of Archbishop Antonio Espinosa .-

When they began to spread in Argentina doctrines anarchists from Italy and Spain .In 1912 he was appointed rector priest of San Miguel Archangel , traditional and historical Buenos Aires church where serious pastor until his death. Also that year was named director, in replacement of its founder, the German father Federico Grote , of the Circles of Catholic Workers (COC).

During that decade he founded the Social League of Argentina , a group of fascist tendencies, whose aim was to fight against modernism and the tendencies they considered subversive. Where they had active participation Alexander Bunge and Atilio Dell’Oro Maini , whose enemies defined by its press organs The Union were the Jews, the liberals and the masons 2 3 4

In 1910 was founded of the Catholic University of Buenos Aires . Only two years after its foundation began to operate its only Faculty, Law. However, the life of this first Catholic University was short lived: failing to obtain the recognition of its titles by the State, closed its doors in 1922. All the efforts were made to save the crisis that was demolished at that time on the brand new University. The Pbro. Luis Duprat was appointed Rector and the Superior Council for his part, was composed by Drs. Joaquín Cullen , Emilio Lamarca and Ángel Pizarro among others. The second and last Rector – there were only two – was Bishop Miguel De Andrea . 5

In 1919 the 1st Congress of Social Catholics of Latin America was held , two years after the Soviet communist revolution in Russia. As De Andrea stated in a conference: [ citation needed ]

His experience in the social field and his connections with economically powerful groups would decide his appointment in 1919 at the head of the Argentine Popular Catholic Union , which responded to directives of the Holy See , where trying to impose a model of centralized social activity, regrouping all the associations Existing Catholic social centers – less the COC – organized and promoted a large national collection to obtain donations, to build cheap housing, working neighborhoods and buildings for social action. 6

In July 1923, the Patriotic League Argentina conducive to the Colosseum theater , next to Circle Tradition Argentina, the four conferences where Leopoldo Lugones throws the nine bases: “Italy has just teach, under the heroic fascist reaction led by the admirable Mussolini, which Must be the way forward.A Andrea joins the proclamation and gives lectures on the advantages of the Italian corporate state instituted by Mussolini.the January 10, 1919 was formed in the Naval Center the group called “Defensores del Orden” to ” hunt “agitators during the events of the Tragic week , the week since 8 to 17 January (1919) was called the ‘red week’, being harangued by Monsignor Miguel De Andrea in his homilies. 7 According to Herman Schiller actions Direct from the “Patriotic League” found a theoretical and philosophical support that was based mainly on the most reactionary sectors of the Church, Bishop Miguel de Andrea, Bishops Piaggio and Bustos (Córdoba).

Bishop of Temnos

But the direct actions of the “Patriotic League” found a theoretical and philosophical support that started from the most reactionary sectors of the Church. lso between Monsignor Miguel de Andrea, who launched a campaign was explaining that “the danger arose from the fact that workers and the masses had stopped believing in God, the Church and the regime.” Referring to Fig.

In 1919 , Benedict XV appointed him protonotary apostolic, and in 1920 , bishop of Temnos , being consecrated in the Metropolitan Cathedral of Buenos Aires .

Andrea will embark for Europe , and arrived in January 1922 . When he moved to Spain In 1923 , his name was first placed on the page prepared by the Senate of the Nation for the archbishopric of Buenos Aires . Nevertheless, he was appointed Minister Plenipotentiary of the Argentine Government before the Holy See . Referring to Fig.

During the decade of the 20 will participate of the formation of the parapolicial group of the Right Patriotic League Argentina along with Joaquin S. Anchorena , Dardo Rocha , the general Luis Dellepiane , Estanislao Zeballos , Luis Agote , Francisco P. Moreno , Monsignor Miguel de Andrea, Angel Gallardo , Jorge Miter , Carlos Tornquist , Monsignor Napal , Miguel Martínez de Hoz , Julio A. Roca (son) .

When in November of 1920 the general strike of rural peons in the province of Santa Cruz , popularly known as the Patagonia Rebelde was unleashed , the League enlisted to stop the strike, the employers began a series of reprisals against the participants of the strikes With reinforcements parapoliciales integrated by members of the League. The Patriotic League had an outstanding performance in the conflict that ended in January 1922 , with a balance of 1,500 workers killed. 10

In its passage through the “Argentine Patriotic League” led the proposal to crush the Judeo-maximalist conspiracy, before other personalities who were gathered in the Naval Center, from there left on January 6 a group of young Catholic-nationalists armed, harangued by D Andrea and Domecq Garcia to carry out an “anti-Jewish crusade” from 6 to 13 January 1919, 11 – which left about 700 dead and more than 4000 injured. 12 Monsignor, I authorize members of the Catholic Workers circles to join the Patriotic League, which emerged as a police force against anarchist, Jewish and socialist movements. Its violence was concentrated mainly in the Russian and Hebrew communities, which Since 13 14

In 1934 he met with dictator Benito Mussolini , during World War II he met with Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the president of the United States and changed sides and stepped in to publicly support that country. fifteen

In 1942 , De Andrea traveled to Washington, invited by the National Welfare Conference to participate in the Assembly of High Prelates that will study the main problems arising from the world war. His speeches in Chicago were internationally successful: he drew attention to the difference between a strong government and a strong government; Its purposes of reconciling antagonistic terms like internationalism and nationalism . [ Citation needed ]

Confrontation with Perón

When the political figure of Colonel Juan Domingo Perón emerges and grows , proclaiming that his message was inspired by the social-Christian encyclicals of Leo XIII and Pío XI , the first dignitaries to approach their brand new Secretariat of Labor and Forecast, soon to be implanted The decree on Religious Education were Don Emilio Antonio Di Pasquo and D’Andrea, who already had experience in spreading Christian social doctrine. 16 It should not be forgotten that the High Ecclesiastical Hierarchy was massively embellished in a tacit support of the new Peronist social-Christianity, without any significant dissent. Therefore, the opposition sectors were ignored or sanctioned by the high dignitaries. [ Citation needed ]

Miguel De Andrea was the only Argentine bishop to deny his signature to the pastoral of November 15, 1945 , where the High Ecclesiastical Hierarchy gave his tacit support to Peron ‘s candidacy in the 1946 elections . 17

And the following year he added, at the Opera Theater ( Rosario ), citing the words of a Roman cardinal:

I spoke of the program, which in its fundamental lines had already been drawn with foresight by the genius of Leo XIII , when he coined the name of Christian democracy , that same program widely discussed by the reigning pontiff, his Holiness Pius XII , in his transcendental address Of 13 of June of 1943 addressed to 20,000 Italian workers, who received those august words with authentic enthusiasm and deep emotion. Such courageous concepts reminded me of the distant years of my youth, when, in the company of some men of strength, I enlisted under the banner of Christian democracy, around which more than ever now all Italians who love their country can join more than ever. The slogan of true democracy is not given for a particular country, but for all. 18

Under these peculiar directives, from the beginning it was insinuated that this sector could not support the new ” Christianity ” of Peron .

In this regard, D’Andrea opined in April 1946 :

In one of my speeches last year I made a statement that was received with some reservations in a certain sector. It contained a repudiation of the intrusion of certain clericalism. Providence has arranged that after a few months that affirmation be solemnly and authoritatively ratified at a recent conference of the cardinals and archbishops of France . One of the conclusions they reached is contained in these terms: “If clericalism means the meddling of the clergy in the jurisdiction of the State , the Church condemns clericalism .” In conclusion, in every democracy the formula could be established: “Ni secularism , or clericalism ! 19

Political legacy

The bishop of Buenos Aires, Miguel de Andrea, was one of those who gave impetus to the idea of ​​a Jewish conspiracy against the Argentine and the Catholic religion in its territory. The words of the monseñor were repeated in the parish bulletins and in the school texts. The ecclesiastical publisher “Brothers of the Christian Schools” distributed books to Catholic school pupils in which the Jews were said to be “an element which in itself entails a real moral and economic danger.” In 1919 he played a prominent role in the creation of para-civil groups: “Social Order” and “Guardia Blanca”, later transformed into “Argentine Patriotic League” and “Pro Argentinidad Committee”, which created armed brigades with the approval of the police and The Army and the financial support of the “National Labor Association”, employer’s employer chaired by Joaquin S. Anchorena. twenty

Miguel de Andrea postulated in 1951 that in Argentina it was necessary to establish a doctrinal and practical coincidence about the basic principles of the Christian Democracy , asking categorically: Is this not what he is vigorously restoring and saving from laborious communism And Christian Italy where do I come from? 21 The Christian Democratic Party of Argentina and Catholic Action constituted the secular arms of the Catholic Church , although she never publicly admitted her contacts with those organizations. 22

Miguel de Andrea, Bishop of Temnos, for the convenience of forming a Christian Democrat party following the trend of Europe with Konrad Adenauer (German Chancellor in 1949-63, founder of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany party currently presided by Federal Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel ), Alcide de Gasperi (founder of the now dissolved party Christian Democratic Italian ) and Robert Schuman (French Foreign Minister in 1948-53 and leader of the now dissolved party also Popular Republican Movement trend Christian democrat ), founding fathers The European Union . 2. 3

The 16 of June of 1955 , the failed coup tragic aviation Navy will leave a tragic toll of civilian deaths, and the fire got in response ancient and historic churches day Buenos Aires , among them, the San Miguel Archangel where Mass officiated Bishop Miguel de Andrea. On that day, the prelate will be imprisoned like many other Catholic priests. 24

Last years

In February 1959 , at the Hotel Hermitage in Mar del Plata , he gave a lecture on Fray Mamerto Esquiú . In March of that year, he will ascend for the last time to the pulpit of his church of San Miguel Arcángel . On May 17 , as 1959 will speak in public in the Kraft lounge, being that his last lecture, because the next day will fall ill. After a year, his illness will worsen, until his death on June 23, 1960 in the city of Buenos Aires. A shocked crowd accompanied his remains to the cemetery of Recoleta , where he received Christian burial. 25

See also

  • Argentine Patriotic League
  • Tragic Week
  • History of political Catholicism in Argentina

References

Miranda Lida, Miguel de Andrea, Bishop and Man of the World 1877-1960, Buenos Aires, Edhasa, 2013

  1. Back to top↑ Saint Lucia, from its origins to 1930. Written by Ferretto Mabel Susana, Rodriguez Diego Eduardo
  2. Back to top↑ https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=-T6bAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA131&lpg=PA131&dq=Miguel+D%C2%B4Andrea+fascismo&source=bl&ots=kkHQUaJAOT&sig=e1iQcM_dQ6wf6oARzhcM1Z-kuVQ&hl=es&sa=X&ei=gXqHVaXgDI_hsATfl4CIDA&ved= 0CCkQ6AEwAg # v = onepage & q = Miguel% 20D% C2% B4Andrea% 20fascismo & f = false
  3. Back to top↑ Farm and Plow. Spenglerians and Fascists in the Pampa 1910-1940 Tranchini, Elin
  4. Back to top↑ http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/contratapa/13-61742-2006-01-16.html
  5. Back to top↑ The first Catholic university
  6. Back to top↑ Lila M. Caimari, Perón and the Catholic Church. Religion, State and Society in Argentina (1943-1955) , Ariel Historia, Bs. As., 1995.
  7. Back to top↑ Rock, David (1997). ‘7. The Tragic Week ». The Argentine Radicalism, 1890-1930. Buenos Aires: Amorrortu. ISBN 9789505187089 . P 127
  8. Back to top↑ http://www.pagina12.com.ar/1999/99-01/99-01-03/pag16.htm
  9. Back to top↑ Ambrosio Romero Carranza, Itinerary of Monseñor de Andrea , Buenos Aires, 1957.
  10. Back to top↑ Mirta Moscatelli (Teacher-Researcher of the career of Social Communication). «The Argentine Patriotic League. A nationalist proposal against the social unrest of the 1920s ” . P. 3 . Consulted the 23 of February of 2010 .
  11. Back to top↑ Solominsky, Nahum. “The Tragic Week in Argentina”. Ed. World Jewish Congress. Buenos Aires, 1971.
  12. Back to top↑ http://www.elhistoriador.com.ar/articulos/movimiento_obrero_hasta_1943/la_semana_tragica.php
  13. Back to top↑ Marked by fire Written by Larraquy, Marcelo, Aguilar, Buenos Aires
  14. Back to top↑ http://www.monografias.com/trabajos99/semana-tragica-rio-plata-azote-judios/semana-tragica-rio-plata-azote-judios.shtml#ixzz3eUHlitXY
  15. Back to top↑ http://www.edhasa.com.ar/libros/libro.php?id=14018&l=Monse%C3%B1or+Miguel+de+Andrea&t=Biograf%C3%ADCas+and+Memorias&a=Lida%2C + Miranda & e = Edhasa & c = Biographies + argentinas & idt = 7
  16. Back to top↑ Mercedes Gandolfo, The Church Factor of Power in Argentina , Ed. Nuestro Tiempo, Montevideo, 1969; Hugo Gambini, Peronism and the Church , Popular History / Life and miracles of our people, n ° 48, Centro Editor de América Latina, Buenos Aires, 1971.
  17. Back to top↑ José Oscar Frigerio, The Syndrome of the Liberating Revolution: the Church against Justicialism , Arkenia, Córdoba, 2010.
  18. Back to top↑ Bishop Miguel De Andrea, Christian and democratic thought of … Homage to the National Congress, Senate of the Nation, Buenos Aires, 1965.
  19. Back to top↑ Bishop Miguel De Andrea, Christian and democratic thought of … Homage to the National Congress, Senate of the Nation, Buenos Aires, 1965.
  20. Back to top↑ Bilsky, Eduardo (1985). The Tragic Week. Buenos Aires: Latin American Editor Center p 123 ISBN 950-614-374-9 .
  21. Back to top↑ Gerardo T. Farrel, Church and people in Argentina (1860-1974) , Ed. Patria Grande, Bs. As., 1976.
  22. Back to top↑ Ricardo G. Parera, Christian Democracy in Argentina. Facts and ideas , Ed. Nahuel, Bs. As., 1967; José Oscar Frigerio, The Syndrome of the Liberating Revolution: the Church against Justicialism , Arkenia, Córdoba, 2010.
  23. Back to top↑ Homage to Dr. Manuel V. Ordóñez of the National Academy of Moral and Political Sciences
  24. Back to top↑ Testimony of Professor Ambrosio Romero Carranza
  25. Back to top↑ Bishop Miguel De Andrea, Christian and democratic thought of … Homage to the National Congress, Senate of the Nation, Buenos Aires, 1965.