Martin John Gilbert ( London , 25 of October of 1936 – 3 of February of 2015 ) 1 was a historian British and author of more than eighty books, including several works on the Holocaust and the history of the Jewish people . Gilbert was a pioneer in the field of atlas historical. He was also known for being the official biographer of Winston Churchill .
Martin Gilbert was born in London, son of Peter and Miriam Gilbert. 2 He spent some of the war years in Canada as part of the British program to protect children from German attacks. After the war he attended the Highgate School and later completed two years of military service before studying modern history at Magdalen College, Oxford , graduating in 1960 with a Bachelor of Arts . 2 One of his professors at Oxford was AJP Taylor . After graduation, Gilbert did postgraduate research at St Antony’s College, Oxford . In 1963, he married Helen Constance Robinson, with whom he had a daughter. He had two children with his second wife, Susan Sacher. 2
After two years of graduate work, Randolph Churchill approached Gilbert to help him write a biography of his father, Winston Churchill. In that same year, he was appointed a guest researcher at Merton College in Oxford and spent the next few years working on his own research projects in Oxford and being part of the Randolph team in Suffolk , working on the first two volumes of Churchill’s biography. When Randolph died in 1968, Gilbert was appointed to complete the work, performing the last six volumes of the biography. He spent twenty years working on these volumes and released several books during this period. Each volume of the biography is accompanied by two or three volumes of documents, so it consists of 24 volumes in total (more than 25,000 pages).
During the 1960s , Gilbert compiled some of the earliest historical atlases. His most important works include a volume on the Holocaust, as well as stories from a volume of the First and Second World War . He also wrote a three – volume series called A History of the Twentieth Century ( A history of the twentieth century ).
Gilbert described himself as a “archival historian” who makes extensive use of primary sources in his work. In an interview with the BBC on the Holocaust, Gilbert stated that the “tireless collection of facts will ultimately entomb the Holocaust deniers .” 3
In 1990 , Gilbert was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire . In 1995 , he was knighted “for his services to British history and international relations.” 4 In 1995 he retired as a member of Merton College, but was appointed an honorary member. In 1999, he obtained an honorary doctorate at the University of Oxford “for all his published works.” During his last years he lived in London. Since 2002 he was a distinguished member of Hillsdale College in Michigan , and between 2006 and 2007 was professor in the department of history at the University of Western Ontario .
Gilbert died 3 of February of 2015 at age 78 after a long illness. 5
The historian Israeli Benny Morris has described Martin Gilbert as a propagandist who uses data overestimate casualties in the history of Israel . 6 Another Israeli historian, Tom Segev , said Gilbert’s book The Story of Israel is written with “encyclopedic clarity,” but criticized the lack of Arab sources. 7
Other scholars have praised Gilbert’s books and atlases for their meticulousness and objective and clear presentation of complex events. His book on World War I was described as a work that incorporates all important points of view (domestic, diplomatic and military), becoming “an impressive achievement of investigation and narration.” 8 In the magazine Inside the Vatican he has been described as “a fair and conscientious collector of facts.” 9 Piers Brendon considers Gilbert to miss or omit uncomfortable points. 10 Michael Foot , in a critique of one of Churchill’s biographies in New Statesman in 1971 , praised the work and wrote that “whoever made the decision to make Martin Gilbert Churchill’s biographer deserves a thanks from The whole nation. ”
Biography of Winston Churchill
- Winston S Churchill: Volume Three: The Challenge of War: 1914-1916 (1971)
- Winston S Churchill: Volume Four: The Stricken World 1917-1922 (1975)
- Winston S Churchill: Volume Five: Prophet of Truth 1922-1939 (1979)
- Winston S Churchill: Volume Six: Finest Hour 1939-1941 (1983)
- Winston S Churchill: Volume Seven: Road to Victory 1941-1945 (1986)
- Winston S Churchill: Volume Eight: Never Despair 1945-1965 (1988)
Complementary Volumes of Wilson Churchill
- Winston S Churchill: Volume Three, Documents (in two volumes, 1972)
- Winston S Churchill: Volume Four, Documents (in three volumes, 1977)
- Winston S Churchill, The Exchequer Years, 1922-1929, Documents (1979)
- Winston S Churchill, The Wilderness Years, 1929-1935, Documents (1981)
- Winston S Churchill, The Coming of War, 1936-1939, Documents (1982)
- The Churchill War Papers, Volume One: Winston S Churchill, ‘At The Admiralty’: September 1939-May 1940 (1993)
- The Churchill War Papers, Volume Two: Winston S Churchill, ‘Never Surrender’: May-December 1940 (1995)
- The Churchill War Papers, Volume Three: Winston Churchill, ‘The Ever-Widening War’: 1941 (2000)
- The Churchill Documents, Seventeen: Testing Times: 1942 (2010)
Other books on Winston Churchill
- Winston Churchill (1966, a short biography for school use)
- Churchill: Great Lives Observed (1967)
- Churchill: A Photographic Portrait (1974)
- Churchill: An Illustrated Biography (1979)
- Churchill’s Political Philosophy (1981)
- Winston Churchill: The Wilderness Years (1981)
- Churchill, A Life (1991)
- In Search of Churchill (1994)
- Winston Churchill and Emery Reves, Correspondence 1937-1964 (1997, editor)
- Churchill at War: His ‘Finest Hour’ in Photographs, 1940-1945 (2003)
- Continue to Pester, Nag and Bite: Churchill’s War Leadership (2004)
- Churchill and America (2005)
- Will of the People (2006)
- Churchill and the Jews (2007)
- Churchill: The Power of Words (2012)
Other biographies and history books
- Britain and Germany Between the Wars (editor, 1964)
- The Appeasers (with Richard Gott, 1965)
- The European Powers 1900-1945 (1965)
- Plow My Own Furrow: The Life of Lord Allen of Hurtwood (editor, 1965)
- Recent History Atlas, 1860-1960 (1965)
- The Roots of Appeasement (1966)
- Servant of India (editor, 1966)
- Lloyd George: Great Lives Observed (editor, 1968)
- British History Atlas (1968)
- American History Atlas (1968)
- Jewish History Atlas (1969)
- The Second World War (1970, for school use)
- First World War Atlas (1971)
- Russian History Atlas (1972)
- Sir Horace Rumbold: Portrait of a Diplomat, 1869-1941 (1973)
- The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Its History in Maps (1974)
- The Jews of Arab Lands: Their History in Maps (1976)
- The Jews of Russia: Their History in Maps and Photographs (1976)
- Jerusalem Illustrated History Atlas (1977)
- Exile and Return: The Emergence of Jewish Statehood (1978)
- The Holocaust, Maps and Photographs (1978, for school use)
- Final Journey: The Fate of the Jews of Nazi Europe (1979)
- Children’s Illustrated Bible Atlas (1979)
- Auschwitz and the Allies (1981)
- Atlas of the Holocaust (1982)
- Jews of Hope, The Plight of Soviet Jewry Today (1984)
- Jerusalem: Rebirth of a City (1985)
- The Holocaust: The Jewish Tragedy (1986)
- Shcharansky: Hero of Our Time (1986)
- The Second World War (1989)
- Atlas Of British Charities (1993)
- The Day the War Ended: May 8 1945 (1995)
- Jerusalem in the Twentieth Century (1996)
- The Boys, Triumph Over Adversity (1996)
- First World War (2002)
- A History of the Twentieth Century, Volume One: 1900-1933 (1997)
- Holocaust Journey: Traveling in Search of the Past (1997)
- Israel, A History (1998)
- A History of the Twentieth Century, Volume Two, 1933-1951 (1999)
- A History of the Twentieth Century, Volume Three, 1952-1999 (1999)
- Never Again: A History of the Holocaust (2000)
- From The Ends of the Earth: The Jews in the Twentieth Century (2001)
- History of the Twentieth Century (2001, condensed version of its three-volume story)
- Letters to Auntie Fori: The 5,000-Year History of the Jewish People and their Faith (2002)
- The Righteous: The Unsung Heroes of the Holocaust (2002)
- Christian Clergy as Rescuers: A Holocaust Imperative (2003)
- D-Day (2004)
- Kristallnacht: Prelude to Destruction (2006)
- The Somme: Heroism and Horror in the First World War (2006)
- The Story of Israel (2008)
- Atlas of the Second World War (2009)
- In Ishmael’s House: The History of the Jews in Muslim Lands (2010)
Editions in Spanish
- Atlas Akal of the First World War: the complete story . Editions Akal. 2003. ISBN 978-84-460-1867-4 .
- The Normandy landing: D-day . Editions Paidós Ibérica. 2005. ISBN 978-84-493-1741-5 .
- The European powers . Grijalbo. 1967. ISBN 978-84-253-0223-7 .
- The First World War . The Sphere of Books. 2005. ISBN 978-84-9734-243-8 .
- The Second World War (1939-1942) . The Sphere of Books. 2005. ISBN 978-84-9734-298-8 .
- The Second World War (1943-1945) . The Sphere of Books. 2006. ISBN 978-84-9734-433-3 .
- The night of broken glass: the prelude to destruction . 21st Century of Spain. 2008. ISBN 978-84-323-1370-7 .
- The Battle of the Somme: The bloodiest battle of the First World War . Group Planeta. 2014. ISBN 9788434417663 .
- Back to top↑ «Iraq Inquiry panel member Sir Martin Gilbert dies» . The Daily Telegraph (in English) . February 4, 2015 . Retrieved on February 4, 2015 .
- ↑ Jump to:a b c «The Papers of Sir Martin Gilbert» (in English) . Janus . Consulted the 6 of November of 2008 .
- Back to top↑ Berg, Raffi (November 14, 2005). “The Fight Against Holocaust denial” (in English) . BBC News . Consulted on November 7, 2008 .
- Back to top↑ “Supplement to the London Gazette” (PDF) . London Gazette (in English) . Office of Public Sector Information. 16 June 1995 . Consulted on November 7, 2008 .
- Back to top↑ “Iraq Inquiry panel member Sir Martin Gilbert dies aged 78 ‘ (in English) . Independent Television (ITV) . February 4, 2015 . Retrieved on February 4, 2015 .
- Back to top^ Morris, Benny (1997). Israel’s Border Wars, 1949-1956 (in English) . Oxford: Oxford University Press . ISBN 0-585-25949-6 . Consulted on November 7, 2008 .
- Back to top↑ Segev, Tom (August 14, 2008). ‘Sir Martin’s coffee-table book’ (in English) . Ha’aretz . Consulted on November 7, 2008 .
- Back to top↑ “The First World War: A Complete History by Martin Gilbert” (in English) . LibraryThing . August 25, 2008 . Consulted on November 8, 2008 .
- Back to top↑ «Sir Martin Gilbert: A Rare Kind of Historian» . Inside the Vatican Magazine (in English) . Catholic Exchange. February 1, 2008 . Consulted on November 8, 2008 .
- Back to top↑ Brendon, Piers (July 13, 2007). “Winston Churchill: a Latter-Day Moses?” (In English) . The Independent . Archived from the original on November 25, 2015 . Consulted on November 8, 2008 .