The Manifesto of the 343 , also known as Manifesto of the 343 sluts (in French, manifeste des 343 , or des 343 salopes ) was an statement issued on 5 of April of 1971 at number 334 of the magazine French Le Nouvel Observateur and signed 343 women who claimed to have had an abortion and, consequently, were liable to be subject to criminal proceedings that could get admission to prison .
The manifesto , written by Simone de Beauvoir , begins as follows:
- ” One million women abort every year in France .
- They do so in dangerous conditions because of the clandestinity to which they are condemned when this operation, practiced under medical supervision, is one of the simplest .
- Join millions of women in silence .
- I declare that I am one of them. I declare to have aborted .
- Just as we claim free access to contraceptive means, we claim free abortion . ” 1
Following the manifest 343 occur firms , among which figures such as Catherine Arditi , Françoise Arnoul , Brigitte Auber , Stéphane Audran , Colette Audry , Tina Aumont , Hélène de Beauvoir , Simone de Beauvoir , Valérie Boisgel , Olga Bost , Claudine Chenez , Iris Clert , Lise Deharme , Christine Delphy , Catherine Deneuve , Dominique Desanti , Marguerite Duras , Françoise d’Eaubonne , Françoise Fabian , Brigitte Fontaine , Luce Garcia-Ville , Claude Genia , Gisèle Halimi , Katia Kaupp , Bernadette Lafont , Danièle Lebrun , Annie Leclerc , Violette Leduc , Marceline Loridan , Judith Magre , Genevieve Mnich , Ariane Mnouchkine , Claudine Monteil , Jeanne Moreau , Michèle Moretti , Liane Mozere , Nicole Muchnik , Bulle Ogier , Marie Pillet (mother of Julie Delpy ), Marie-France Pisier , Micheline Presle , Marthe Robert , Christiane Rochefort , Yvette Roudy , Françoise Sagan , Delphine Seyrig , Alexandra Stewart , Gaby Sylvia , Nadine Trintignant , Irène Tunc , Agnès Varda , Catherine Varlin , Ursula Vian-Kubler , Marina Vlady , Anne Wiazemsky and Monique Wittig .
Some of the signatories claimed that abortion was free as well as being free.
The idea came from Jean Moreau, from the Nouvel Observateur . 2
The week after the publication of the manifesto, the satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo made his first one with a drawing that criticized male politicians with the phrase “Qui a engrossé les 343 salopes du manifeste sur l’avortement?” ( Who left pregnant To the 343 sluts of the manifesto on abortion? ). This drawing of Cabu ended up giving the nickname to the manifesto.
This is one of the best-known examples of civil disobedience in France . He inspired in 1973 a manifesto of 331 doctors who declared themselves in favor of the freedom to abort. It also contributed to ratification between December 1974 and January 1975 of the Veil Act , which decriminalized voluntary termination of pregnancy during the first ten weeks of gestation, a period which was subsequently extended to twelve weeks, and now fourteen weeks Amenorrhea with the 1975 law reform by Martine Aubry in 2001 .
It also inspired the movement of the 143 rebels in 2006, made up of women from the French Socialist Party who opposed Ségolène Royal ‘s candidacy for the presidential elections of 2007 , 3 and in 2008 the manifesto in favor of the right to Delivery at home accompanied by a midwife. 4
- Back to top↑ Original text in French:
- « A million femmes be font avorter chaque année en France .
- They are the source of the conditions in the raison d’être of the clandestine to the son of the condamnées, alors que cette opération, pratiquée sous contrôle médical, est des plus simple .
- On fait le silence sur ces millions de femmes .
- I will state that je suis l’une d’elles. Je déclare avoir avorté .
- De même que nous réclamons le livre accès aux moyens anticonceptionnels, nous réclamons l’avortement libre . »
- Back to top↑ Le Nouvel Observateur , No. 2160, 30 of March of 2006 , L’histoire secrète du “Manifeste des 343 salopes” , Sophie des Deserts.
- Back to top↑ ‘143 rebelles “contre la Ségomania in lefigaro.fr ,” Plusieurs femmes du Parti socialiste baptisé ont leur mouvement “143 rebelles” in “clin d’oeil” au manifeste des «343 salopes” (Several women Party Socialist party have called their “143 rebels” movement a nod to the “343 sluts” manifesto.
- Back to top↑ Manifeste in faveur du droit à l’accouchement à domicile , official site (in French).