Khan Noonien Singh , usually abbreviated as Khan is a villain fictitious in the universe Star Trek . According to the story explained in the first appearance of the character, the episode Seed space (in English, Space seed ) of the original series , Khan is a superhuman, created by eugenics and genetic engineering that in his time, he mastered more Of a quarter of the Earth , until losing power during the so-called eugenic wars of the 1990s . After being revived by the crew of the starship USS Enterprise in 2267 , Khan attempts to capture the ship, but is defeated by Captain James T. Kirk and exiled on the planet Ceti Alpha V , where he could create a new civilization with his people genetically improved. The character returned in the 1982 film Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan , located fifteen years after the original episode. In it, Khan manages to escape its exile and looks for Kirk to take revenge. Khan was played in both the television episode and the movie by actor Ricardo Montalbán . 1
Initially conceived as a brutal man of Nordic descent, reflecting some of the features of Friedrich Nietzsche’s ” Übermensch ” concept , Khan is depicted as a man of Indian descent, elegant and ambitious, admired by the Enterprise crew at the same time Which is opposed to their plans. Harve Bennett , executive producer of Star Trek II , chose the character as Kirk’s perfect antagonist in the film and provided him with a garment that looks made from bits of other pieces to reflect the time spent on an inhospitable planet. Khan is a villain repeatedly imitated and was positively received by critics and audiences. The Online Film Critics Society chose him as one of the ten greatest film villains of all time. 2
Khan first appeared in the twenty – second episode of the original series of Star Trek , entitled Space Seed and released the 16 of February of 1967 . According to what is stated in the episode, 3 Khan is a superior man, genetically improved , one of many created in the twentieth century to overcome the physical and mental limitations of the human being who took power and lost it during the so-called eugenic wars Of the 1990s . 4 Khan was both the most victorious conqueror and the most benign dictator, ruling Western Asia with a firm and generally peaceful hand until he was deposed. While most of the supermen were killed or sentenced to death , Khan and 84 of his servants managed to escape Earth on the sleeping ship S.S. Botany Bay . Note 1 Stored by cryogenesis in suspended animation, the crew of the Botany Bay is discovered by the starship fleet USS Enterprise in 2267.
When Khan’s cryogenic camera suffers a breakdown , Enterprise captain James T. Kirk ( William Shatner ) orders the former dictator, who does not know his true identity, to be transported to his ship, where he wakes up and discovers that he is In the XXIII century . Housed in a spacious cabin while Botany Bay is towed to a starbase, Khan fascinates and seduces crew historian Marla McGivers ( Madlyn Rhue ), while accessing the ship’s technical database and manuals And figure out how to take control of it for its own purposes. McGivers agrees to help Khan revive the rest of the supermen, allowing him to organize a mutiny . To coerce the crew of the Enterprise , Khan encases Captain Kirk in the decompression chamber and threatens to kill him if the ship does not give up. McGivers can not stand it and releases Kirk, who neutralizes Khan and his men using neural gas. Khan manages to escape and from the engineering section tries to destroy the ship, but is defeated by Kirk. The captain then organizes a trial in which judgment Khan and his followers into exile on a planet colonized, Ceti Alpha V . Khan accepts the challenge of Kirk invoking the fall of Lucifer in Paradise Lost by John Milton : ” It is better to rule in hell than serve in heaven.” 5 3 McGivers finally joins Khan to avoid a court martial . In the final scene of the episode, Spock ( Leonard Nimoy ) wonders what will have germinated in a hundred years of the “seed” that Kirk has just planted. 6
Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan
The character of Khan, played brilliantly by Ricardo Montalban , returned in the 1982 film Star Trek II: Khan’s Wrath , when officers Clark Terrell and Pavel Chekov ( Paul Winfield and Walter Koenig , respectively) of the USS Reliant are transported to it. Who believe is Ceti Alpha VI , in search of an inhospitable world in which to test the device Genesis , a powerful terraforming tool . Khan and his followers captured Terrell and Chekov, note 2 soon discover that the barren planet is exploring Ceti Alpha V . The sixth planet of the system exploded shortly after Khan was abandoned, causing severe climatic turbulence on the adjacent planets and turning the fifth world into a desert. Many of the survivors of Khan’s group, including McGivers, who had become his wife, Note 3, were killed by the only surviving animal, the “Ceti worm.” Note 4 When the Reliant arrives on the planet, only twenty of the supermen of Khan are alive. Vowing to take revenge on Kirk, Khan controls the will of Chekov and Terrel using parasites that are implanted in their brains, takes control of the Reliant and prepares to capture the Genesis device . 4 Khan’s goal is to punish Kirk with exile: 6
«I’ve done far worse than kill you, Admiral. I’ve hurt you. And I wish to go on hurting you. I will leave you as you left me, as you left her; Marooned for all eternity in the center of a dead planet … buried alive! Buried alive …! » “I’ve done something worse than killing him. I’ve hurt him. And I want to continue hurting him. I will leave you, as you also left me, as you left my wife; Abandoned for all eternity in the center of a dead planet … Buried alive! Buried alive! »Khan, addressing Kirk in The Rage of Khan . 7
Deceived by Khan to go to the space station Regula I , the crew of the Enterprise suffers a surprise attack of the old dictator. Kirk, with his partially dead ship, tricks Khan using a secret code to remotely lower the Reliant’s shields so they can attack them, forcing the villain to retreat to repair his ship. Through mind control exercised over Terrell and Chekov, Khan device captures the Genesis and leaves Kirk abandoned in Regula I . However, Spock manages to trick you into thinking that the Enterprise is terminally ill, so Kirk and the rest of the crew can escape to the nearby nebula of Mutara . Feeling challenged, Khan orders the Reliant to chase the ship through the nebula, where the shields and sensors are useless. Due to the inexperience of the dictator in space combat, the Enterprise manages to damage the Reliant and kill the followers of Khan, who does not accept defeat and activates Genesis with the objective of killing his enemy, even at the cost of his own life . However, the stellar fleet escapes when Spock, in a self-sacrifice act, repairs the Enterprise ‘s curvature engine and allows it to escape. Khan’s last words are a paraphrase of Captain Ahab of Moby-Dick :
Star Trek: In the Dark
The character of Khan also appears as the main antagonist in the 2013 film Star Trek: In The Dark , played by Benedict Cumberbatch . 10 This movie, a follow-up to Star Trek (2009), sits on an alternate timeline, where Khan’s origin remains the same, but the SS Botany Bay is found, rather than by the USS Enterprise crew , for The admiral of the fleet Alexander Marcus. The latter, fearing an imminent war with the Klingons , keeps Khan’s crew in cryogenesis as hostages and forces the former dictator to develop new Starfleet weapons and ships within Section 31 under the false identity of John Harrison. According to a series of comics published after the 2013 film, the radically different physical appearance of Kahn, who now looks like a white-skinned, white-eyed Caucasian, is due to Admiral Marcus ordering an advanced, extensive Plastic surgery in Khan to hide their true appearance. eleven
Khan manages to rebel and flies a research center of Starfleet in London, knowing that this would require a high – level meeting to be attended by the captains and first officers of the nearby ships and Admiral Marcus himself. During the meeting, Khan attacked the headquarters of the Starfleet of the United Federation of Planets in San Francisco , with a small ferry, killing many officials, including Admiral Christopher Pike , to be transported after the world Klingon, Qo’noS . Marcus orders James T. Kirk to eliminate Khan using 72 experimental torpedoes, but Kirk contradicts his orders and tries to capture him alive. 12
The assault team, made up of himself, Spock and Nyota Uhura , is intercepted by the Klingons. Hikaru Sulu , under the temporary command of the USS Enterprise , orders Khan to surrender or be attacked with the new torpedoes. Khan quickly deduces that the torpedoes contain their comrades in cryogenic suspension and manages to free the Kirk team from the Klingons. When confirming with Kirk the number of torpedoes, Khan surrenders immediately. Once in custody, Khan reveals his true identity and the deception of Admiral Marcus. 13
Shortly thereafter , Marcus arrives at the USS Vengeance , ship designed for war by Khan himself. Kirk allies with Khan, in an attempt to capture Marcus and rescue the admiral’s daughter, Carol . Once the control of the ship’s command bridge is successfully taken, Khan kills Admiral Marcus by crushing his skull with his hands, breaks Carol’s leg, and negotiates with Spock to transport his original crew to the USS Vengeance . In exchange for releasing Kirk and Scott Montgomery , Spock agrees to transport the torpedoes. After completing the exchange, Khan attempts to destroy the USS Enterprise , but Spock, who had previously separated Khan’s comrades from the torpedoes and activated the warheads, detonates them and manages to paralyze Kahn’s ship, which can not keep the orbit And begins to plunge toward Earth . 14 In a scene parallel to Spock’s death in Star Trek II: Khan’s wrath , Kirk sacrifices himself to repair the damage of the ship and it is Spock who shouts the name of Khan. fifteen
Khan deliberately directs the USS Vengeance to San Francisco and escapes unscathed from the devastation produced by the crash. Spock is transported to the surface to confront him and manages to defeat him with the help of Uhura, aiming to transport him back to the USS Enterprise , as the genetically enhanced blood of Khan can help to revive Kirk. The treatment succeeds, and Khan is put back into cryogenic dream along with his crew in a secure Starfleet hangar. 16
The American author Greg Cox has written three novels of Star Trek in which appears Khan, published under license by Pocket Books , but whose histories are not considered pertaining to the canon of Star Trek . 17 In the two volumes of The Eugenics Wars: The Rise and Fall of Khan Noonien Singh scientific experiments leading to the birth of Khan narrated, his rise to power and his exile in Botany Bay thanks to the action of Gary Seven to avoid Their machinations on Earth. The continuation of the story, To Reign in Hell: The Exile of Khan Noonien Singh , was published in 2005 and relates the adventures of Khan and his army of supermen in Ceti Alpha V to the events developed in The Wrath of Khan . 18 This last part was adapted in cartoon form with the title Khan: Ruling in Hell in 2010 . 19
The first novel tells how a group of scientists specialized in genetic engineering create somewhere in the Indian Subcontinent the “Crysalis project” to create improved human beings, of which Khan would be the most perfect example. This one would have been born in 1970, being its mother the own director of the project, Sarina Kaur. According to one of the scientists of the project, the axiom of Khan’s life would be that “a superior ability feeds a higher ambition.” 20 In the second novel, set in 1992, a group of genetically enhanced humans, including Khan, simultaneously take control of more than 40 nations on Earth. Until 1996, Khan governed more than a quarter of the earth’s population, from Asia to the Middle East , an area comparable to the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan . He is considered a benign dictator, whose influence avoids civil wars and massacres, but soon enters into war against other tyrants in the calls eugénicas wars . Defeated finally, Khan and 84 of his followers, who have sworn eternal loyalty to him, escape assaulting an interplanetary sleeper ship of class DY-100, the SS Botany Bay . 21 The third novel focuses on the fall into madness Khan, especially after the loss of his wife, Marla McGivers Lieutenant, the Enterprise , after the orbital distortion afflicting the planet Ceti Alpha V . 22
The character of Khan and all that implies appears in the context of other episodes, comics 23 and novels 24 of the saga of Star Trek . For example, in episode A Matter of Time of the series The new generation , captain Jean-Luc Picard comments that violating the first directive can cause the creation of the “next Adolf Hitler or Khan Singh”, question raised “to all the students first – year philosophy since the first wormholes were discovered. ” 25 Khan’s tyranny and eugenic wars cause the genetic manipulation of human embryos to be prohibited throughout the United Federation of Planets , but there is a black market that allows DNA to be resurrected , 26 which benefits such characters as Dr. Julian Bashir , One of the protagonists of Deep Space nine . 27 In the words of Admiral Bennett, who is the positive case of Bashir, “for every Julian Bashir that can be created, there is a Khan Singh waiting at the end.” 28
In 2004, the Star Trek franchise recovered part of Khan’s story arc in the Star Trek: Enterprise series . 29 In the episodes Borderland , 30 Cold Station 12 31 and The Augments , 32 a twenty-second-century scientist , Arik Soong, relives several genetically enhanced embryos from the Khan era and thus creates a new human race, called ” Augments ‘). 33 The series producer, Manny Coto , described these children as “mini Khan Noonien Singhs.” 34 One of Soong’s descendants, Noonian Soong, named after his admiration for Khan, is the inventor of the Data , B-4 and Lore droids . 35
British writer-writer James Swallow wrote a short story with an alternate Khan story, titled Seeds of Dissent , for the anthology Myriad Universes: Infinity’s Prism , published in 2008; In this one, Khan, after winning in the eugenic wars and conquering the United States , inaugurates an interstellar empire, it faces the Romulans and dies at the age of 213 years. 36 However, he manages to transplant his memory and personality to a computer, thus ruling his empire forever. 37
Design and analysis
In the original script of the episode Space Seed , written by Carey Wilber, the personage of Khan was a superman of nordic origin named Harold Erricsen. The first draft of the script presented the character as John Ericssen, one of the dictators who caused the First World Tyranny, in which he took the name of Ragnar Thorwald. Thorwald was a more brutal character than Khan in the final version, in which he used particle weapons to assassinate his guards. 38 However, in the final draft Khan is of Indian descent . 39 Despite this, the character has a Hispanic accent and his physical appearance is very different from that of most of the Star Trek characters . 40
The character’s own name, Khan Noonien Singh, was finally chosen by Gene Roddenberry as a tribute to one of his comrades in World War II , Kim Noonien Singh, hoping to reconnect with him. 41 The change of the first name adds the title Kan , note 5 which in several Asian languages means “great” 42 and applies to the great princes and chiefs. 43 In the novelization of the episode Space Seed , written by James Blish, is added the name of Sibahl, but this name has not been used in any other occasion.
In the episode, Khan is presented as a graceful man: he is elegant, smiling, brave and generous. He does not feel threatened by the success of others and boosts his self-esteem. He is also ambitious, seeker of a challenge that matches his skills. This ambition, however, has no regard for the rights of others. Author Paul Cantor claims that Khan is a mirror image of Kirk, with whom he shares his aggressiveness, ambition and seduction, but possessing them to a much greater extent. 44 Throughout the episode, many characters express their admiration for Khan, but at the same time oppose their plans and what is proposed. 44
After the disappointing response to the first movie in the Star Trek series , The Motion Picture , Paramount executives asked Harve Bennett , a television producer who had never seen the original Star Trek series to produce the sequel. 45 Bennett saw all the original episodes and chose Khan as a possible villain in the film. 46 The first drafts of the script showed Khan as the tyrant in the shadow of a planet revolution. Subsequently the ” Genesis device” was added , which Khan would like. 46
Costume designer Robert Fletcher wanted to emphasize the effects of Ceti Alpha V’s harsh environment on Khan and his followers: “My intention with Khan was to express the fact that they had been exiled on a planet without any technical infrastructure, so they had to ‘ Cannibalize ‘everything they wore or wore. So I tried to make them look as if they had been dressed in the pieces of upholstery and electrical equipment that made up the ship. 47 Director Nicholas Meyer asked Montalbán to always wear his right glove to offer spectators a mystery in which they could form their own opinion and thus add intrigue to the character. 48 It has been questioned on numerous occasions if Montalbán had any prosthesis in the chest during the film, since his dress was purposely designed to show it. Meyer responds in the commentary to the film that the actor, who was 61 years old during filming, 4 was “a tough guy” and that it was not necessary to apply any prosthesis. 48
Gene Roddenberry , creator of Star Trek who criticized many aspects of the film, commented that “Khan had not been designed as such an exciting character, but was something more flimsy. The Khan of the television episode had a much deeper and kinder character than that of the film, but Montalban managed to get rid of it. 49
At no point in Khan’s anger Kirk and Khan face each other face-to-face: they always communicate through screens or radio. This is due in part to the stage of the Reliant was a decorated re – used from the bridge of the Enterprise and scenes of both actors were filmed four months apart. 50 In fact, Ricardo Montalban recited his lines in front of a script supervisor, not against William Shatner: “I had to say my words with the girl in the script that, as you can imagine, did not sound like Bill [Shatner].” 51
During the promotion of the film, Montalbán stated that he soon realized in his career that a good villain does not see himself as evil. 51 The villain can do many evil things, but he feels he does it for good reasons. The actor also commented that he always looked for a fault in the character, since nobody is completely good or completely bad; While Khan has a truly distorted view of reality and, therefore, performs evil deeds, yet he still thinks that his revenge is a noble cause, 52 since he responds to the death of his wife. 51
Khan quotes and reflects the character of captain Ahab of Moby-Dick several times during the film, note 6 carrying his grudge to the extreme to make Kirk pay for the evil he inflicted , 48 a parallelism that has also been outlined in several Literary publications. 53 According to the professor at the University of Northern Colorado Jane Wall Hinds, Kirk represents both Ishmael and the whale itself, while Khan shows an obsession that takes you ignore the wise advice of his crew, eventually leading to death in His vain attempt to destroy Kirk: 54
«He tasks me! He / she will take care of you. I’ll chase him round the Moons of Nibia, and round the Antares Maelstrom, and round perdition’s flames before I give him up! “ “I hate him. I hate him and make him my prisoner. I will chase him through the moons of Nibia, around the Antares [sic] and through the flames of perdition, and I will never give up until I find him. “Khan in The Wrath of Khan . 55
According to Nicholas Meyer, the inspiration for Khan’s revenge is also found in other classics such as Lost Paradise and King Lear :
‘I started thinking,’ What books does a superman take with him into exile? ‘ At one point, Khan says, ‘On Earth I was a prince,’ and certainly he’s a fallen angel, so I picked up all the books that were Lucifer-related – fallen angel – whether it was ‘Moby Dick’ or ‘Paradise Lost’ Or ‘King Lear’, and began to build from there. I thought, ‘He’s probably been obsessively reading these books again and again until every word out of his mouth has been written by Shakespeare or Milton.’ Actually, Melville was the one who finally took over; He just becomes completely Ahab. “ “I began to think:” what books would a superman take to exile? ” At one point, Khan says, “On earth I was a prince” and he is certainly a fallen angel, so I chose all the books that had to do with Lucifer, the fallen angel, out Moby Dick , Paradise Lost or The King Lear and I started building from there. I thought, “I probably have been obsessively reading these books over and over again until every word out of his mouth was written by Shakespeare or Milton.” In fact, Melville was the one who finally won: he became completely Ahab. “Nicholas Meyer, Director’s Commentary . 48
As superior man
In a superficial way, it has been considered that Khan shares some similarities with the concept of ” Übermensch ” (superman) of Friedrich Nietzsche . 56 He is mentally and physically superior to any human being, besides showing an amoral reasoning. Professor William J. Devlin and Shai Biderman examined in their work, Star Trek and Philosophy: The Wrath of Kant , the personage of Khan comparing it with the concept of Nietzsche and they concluded that the blind commitment of the character by the revenge is against the ideal Of transcendence and self-creation of a life full of meaning of the philosophical term. Instead, Spock’s self- sacrifice in Khan ‘s anger is a better example of Übermensch. 56
Reception and legacy
Khan’s character was favorably received by critics. In a review of all Star Trek films , the Associated Press noted that films could be classified according to how threatening the enemy was and Khan was the best of the series. 57 A 2002 critique of the saga described Khan as the greatest enemy seen in any of the films. 58 The producer of Star Trek , Rick Berman , called the villain “menacing and memorable.” 57 Critics of Khan’s anger , like Roger Ebert , pointed to Khan as one of the best aspects of the film. 59 60
Critic Christopher Null comments that “it is almost word now revealed among the trekkies that Star Trek II: Khan ‘s anger is the best without discussion of the series and he will never find his equal”, 59 in addition to calling Khan “the best role In the race [of Montalbán]. 61 Despite feeling that the enemy of Star Trek: The Motion Picture , V’ger , was more cerebral and mysterious, the author James Iaccino points out that many fans prefer the archetypal struggle of good against evil represented by the confrontation between Kirk and Khan. 62 The villains of the following Star Trek films have been classified according to Khan, and even the production company Paramount promised fans that the villain of Star Trek Generations would be at least equal to the superman. 63 IGN considered Khan to be the best villain in Star Trek , noting that it paved the way for all the revenge-seeking enemies in the series: decades after the film’s premiere, “even those with minimal interest [in the saga] first name”. 64
Khan is also recognized as a great villain out of the Star Trek series . The Associated Press considers him “one of the great villains of science fiction.” 57 In 2002, the 132 members of the Online Film Critics Society voted for Khan as one of the ten greatest movie villains of all time, being the only Star Trek character on the list. 65 also Emmy Magazine voted in 2006 to Khan as the “most fantastic television character”, surpassing other classic characters like the Doctor of Doctor Who and Adama Commander of Battlestar Galactica . The editors went on to write that “Khan was so interesting that we would have bought a Chrysler Cordoba if he had told us,” referring to an advertising campaign in which Montalban announced a Chrysler . 66 The character has also had some cultural impact outside the Star Trek universe . For example, the fragment of Khan’s anger in which Kirk yells “Khaaan!” Has been quoted in series as The Big Bang Theory 67 and used for humorous purposes on websites such as YTMND 68 and in series such as Robot Chicken . 69 70
Following the box office success of JJ Abrams’ Star Trek XI and the announcement that Chris Pine and Zachary Quinto would appear in two sequels, several rumors circulated on the Internet about the second film’s plot. Abrams commented that thanks to the alternate timeline created in the film, reintroducing Khan was a possibility. In an interview on MTV , he stated that “[Khan and Kirk] exist and although their story is not exactly the story that is familiar to people, I can argue that the character of a person is what he is.” Thus, for Abrams, Khan can be both just and evil, even if Kirk never exiles him in Ceti Alpha V , since, for the director, “certain people are destined to cross their paths … and Khan is out there , Even if it does not do the same. 71
- Back to top↑ Named in reference to the prison ” Botany Bay ” created by the British in Australia (cfr. City of Botany Bay (2010). “A Short History of the City of Botany Bay” (in English) . Archived from the Original on November 27, 2015 . Retrieved on May 17, 2010 . ).
- Back to top↑ In the film, Khan recognize Chekov and despite Chekov’s character does not appear in Space Seed , since Walter Koenig had not yet joined the series. In order to explain this discrepancy, the result of a scrutiny of the scriptwriters, in the novelization of the film, written by Vonda N. McIntyre , Chekov is “an ensign assigned to the guard of Khan” during the original episode, reason why they are known although meet not appear (cfr. Jenkins, Henry (1992). Textual Poachers: Television Fans & Participatory Culture Routledge p 104…. ISBN 0-4159-0572-9 . ). In the novel To Reign in Hell: The Exile of Khan Noonien Singh , Chekov is one of the officers who escorts Khan to the surface of Ceti Alpha V after hisconviction.
- Back to top↑ The film is not named to McGivers, but in the original script (cfr. Bennett, Harve ;. Jack B. Sowards, Samuel A. Peeples (1982) The Wrath of Khan Screenplay (in English) . Retrieved May 24, 2010 “And I’ll wager he never told you about his shipmate, the beautiful and courageous Lieutenant McGiver, who gave up everything to join me in exile OUT OF LOVE And see how Admiral Kirk requited her devotion – – She’s dead as earth! ” ).
- Back to top↑ The original name of the animal is “ eel “, which is translated directly by eel . However, in González, Manuel A. (2000). Exobiology: Starfleet manual . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 124. ISBN 8495070812 . Is called “Ceti worm.” Its design was patented ( US Patent Documents (1984). “United States Patent D275,777” (in English) Accessed May 24, 2010. “Invented by Ralston, Kenneth R. for Paramount Pictures Corporation.”. ).
- Back to top↑ The script of the title in the Turkish language is khān , but in Castilian Kan is preferred to refer to the title (see Real Academia Española (2005)) Panhispánico dictionary of doubts Madrid: Santillana ISBN 9788429406238 . 2010 . ” it should not be written khan , spelling corresponding to other languages, such as English or French.” ).
- Back to top↑ To further illustrate this parallel, in the small library of the SS Botany Bay is seen in the film, a volume published Bible , of Paradise Lost and Moby-Dick .
- Back to top↑ Star Trek cast and crew (August 6, 2008). Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, The Director’s Edition: Special Features (DVD; Disc 2/2). Paramount Pictures .
- Back to top↑ The Online Film Critics Society (2010). “The Online Film Critics Society Names Greatest Screen the Villain Of All Time” (in English) . Archived from the original on November 27, 2015 . Retrieved on May 24, 2010 . «Ricardo Montalban as Khan Noonien Singh in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan»
- ↑ Jump to:a b Space Seed (screenplay)
- ↑ Jump to:a b c Cartmell, Deborah; Whelehan, Imelda (1999). Adaptations: From Text to Screen, Screen to Text . Routledge Publishing. P. 179. ISBN 0-415-16738-8 .
- Back to top↑ “It is better to rule in hell than serve in heaven” Paradise Lost (Book I), John Milton , 1667.
- ↑ Jump to:a b Díaz Maroto, Carlos; Alboreca, Luis (2009). Star Trek: The Last Frontier (First Edition). English: Jaguar. Pp. 83-196. ISBN 978-84-96423-76-3 .
- Back to top^ Meyer, Nicholas (1982). Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan (DVD). Paramount Pictures . Scene in 1: 07: 21-1: 07: 50.
- Back to top↑ Melville, Herman (1851). «135: The Chase – Third Day» . Moby-Dick (in English) . New York: Harper and Brothers . Retrieved on May 24, 2010 .
- Back to top^ Meyer, Nicholas (1982). Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan (DVD). Paramount Pictures . Scene in 1: 30: 32-1: 30: 41.
- Back to top↑ Blauvelt, Christian (May 18, 2013). ‘Star Trek Into Darkness’ Fan Review: Your ‘Star Wars’ Prequel Anger Is What I Feel Now » . 2. Khan . Hollywood.com. P. 1 . Retrieved on July 8, 2013 .
- Back to top↑ Fratangelo, Jennifer (May 18, 2013). «Star Trek Into Darkness Boldly Goes» . The Alternative Press.com. P. 1 . Retrieved on July 8, 2013 .
- Back to top↑ Crouch, Ian (May 20, 2013). «Star Trek’s Best Enemy Gets Reheated» . The New Yorker (in English) . Retrieved on July 8, 2013 .
- Back to top↑ Vary, Adam B. (May 19, 2013). «10 Classic Star Trek References In” Star Trek Into Darkness “» . BuzzFeed (in English) . Retrieved on July 8, 2013 .
- Back to top↑ Alvarez, Luis M. (June 6, 2013). « Star Trek Into Darkness Review » . Alt1040 . Retrieved on July 8, 2013 . “Cumberbatch manages to play a villain as relentless as he is sensitive, mastering his emotional resources in the same way that his character controls situations.”
- Back to top↑ Stanziel, Poetic (May 20, 2013). «Star Trek: Into Darkness Vs. The Wrath of Khan» . Poetic Discourse (in English) . Archived from the original on July 8, 2013 . Retrieved on July 8, 2013 .
- Back to top↑ Edidin, Rachel (May 22, 2013). «The Braver, Better Movie That Star Trek Into Darkness Could Have Been» . Wired (in English) . Retrieved on July 8, 2013 .
- Back to top↑ The Internet Speculative Fiction Database ISFDB logo Search the database (2010). “Greg Cox – Summary Bibliography” (in English) . Retrieved on May 24, 2010 .
- Back to top↑ Greg Cox (2010). “Greg Cox’s Bibliography” (in English) . Retrieved on May 24, 2010 .
- Back to top↑ IDW Publishing. “Star Trek: Khan: Ruling in Hell” (in English) . Accessed January 31, 2011 .
- Back to top↑ Cox, Greg (2001). The Rise and Fall of Khan Noonien Singh, Volume 1 (in English) (first edition). New York: Pocket Books. P. 404. ISBN 0671021273 .
- Back to top↑ Cox, Greg (2002). The Rise and Fall of Khan Noonien Singh, Volume 2 (in English) (first edition). New York: Pocket Books. P. 435. ISBN 0743406435 .
- Back to top↑ Cox, Greg (2005). To Reign in Hell: The Exile of Khan Noonien Singh (in English) (first edition). New York: Pocket Books. P. 336. ISBN 0743457110 .
- Back to top↑ Abnett, Dan (1997). Cloak and Dagger. Star Trek: Early Voyages (in English) ( Marvel Comics ) (5 and 6).
- Back to top↑ In the novel Abyss , Dr. Ethan Locken is declared a big fan of Khan and plansbuild a new Federation as its ideals. Cfr. Lang, Jeffrey; Weddle, David (2001). Abyss . Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 0671774832 .
- Back to top↑ Rick Berman (screenplay) and Paul Lynch (director) (November 18, 1991). “A Matter of Time.” Star Trek: The Next Generation . Episode 9. Season 5. Syndicated.
- Return to top↑ René Echevarria and Pam Pietroforte (screenplay), Anson Williams (director) (November 22, 1997). «Statistical Probabilities». Star Trek: Deep Space 9 . Episode 9. Season 6. Syndicated.
- Back to top↑ Ronald D. Moore and Jimmy Diggs (screenplay), David Livingston (director). “Doctor Bashir, I presume.” Star Trek: Deep Space 9 . Episode 16. Season 5. Syndicated.
- Back to top↑ Carey, Diane (1998). Call to Arms … (in English) . Pocket Books. P. 267. ISBN 0671024973 .
- Back to top↑ «Producers Reveal Tidbits about Season 4» . StarTrek.com . CBS Paramount Television . 21 July 2004 . Retrieved on October 14, 2008 .
- Back to top↑ Ken LaZebnik (screenplay), David Livingston (director) (October 24, 2004). Borderland. Star Trek: Enterprise . Episode 4. Season 4. New York: United Paramount Network.
- Back to top↑ Michael Bryant (screenplay), Mike Vejar (director) (November 5, 2004). Cold Station 12. Star Trek: Enterprise . Episode 5. Season 4. New York: United Paramount Network.
- Back to top↑ Michael Sussman ( screenplay) , LeVar Burton (director) (November 12, 2004). «The Augments». Star Trek: Enterprise . Episode 6. Season 4. New York: United Paramount Network.
- Back to top↑ «Production Report: Brent Spiner Begins Trilogy with” Borderland ” » . StarTrek.com . CBS Paramount Television. 27 August 2004 . Retrieved on October 14, 2008 .
- Back to top↑ « Enterprise Raises Khan» . Sci Fi Wire ( Sci Fi Channel ). 8 October 2004 . Retrieved on March 13, 2010 .
- Back to top↑ Robert Lewin, Gene Roddenberry and Maurice Hurley ( screenplay ), Rob Bowman (director) (January 18, 1988). «Datalore». Star Trek: The Next Generation . Episode 13. Season 1. New York: Syndicated.
- Back to top↑ Swallow, James (2008). «Seeds of Dissent». Myriad Universes: Infinity’s Prism (in English) . New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 1-4165-7180-9 .
- Back to top↑ Various authors (2000). All Our Yesterdays: The Time Travel Sourcebook (in English) . New York: Last Unicorn Games. ISBN 978-0671040161 .
- Back to top↑ Freeman, John (editor) (April / May 2005). «Flashback: ‘Space Seed ‘ ». Star Trek Magazine (Titan Magazines) 1 (120).
- Back to top↑ According to Marla McGivers herself: «From the northern India area, I’d guess. Probably the Sikh. They were the most fantastic warriors. ” Space Seed .” Star Trek: The Original Series . NBC . February 16, 1967. No. 22, season 1.
- Back to top↑ Daniel Bernardi (1998). Star Trek and History: Race-Ing Toward a White Future . Rutgers University Press. Pp. 84-85. ISBN 0-813-52466-0 .
- Back to top^ Reeves-Stevens, Judith and Garfield (1995). The Art of Star Trek . Pocket Books . ISBN 0-671-89804-3 .
- Back to top↑ « ” khan. ” » . Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary . Merriam-Webster . Retrieved on May 24, 2010 .
- Back to top^ René Grousset (1988). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia . Rutgers University Press. Pp. 61, 585, n. 92. ISBN 0813513049 .
- ↑ Jump to:a b Cantor, Paul A. (2001). Gilligan Unbound: Popular Culture in the Age of Globalization . Rowman & Littlefield. Pp. 222-223.
- Back to top^ Rioux, Terry Lee (2005). From Sawdust to Stardust: The Biography of DeForest Kelley . Pocket Books. Pp. 240-242. ISBN 0-7434-5762-5 .
- ↑ Jump to:a b Robinson, Ben (editor) (September 2002). Special ‘The Wrath of Khan’ Issue. Star Trek: the Magazine (Fabbri Publishing) 3 (5).
- Back to top↑ Star Trek cast and crew (August 6, 2002). Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, The Directors Edition: Special Features: Designing Khan (DVD, Disc 2/2). Paramount Pictures .
- ↑ Jump to:a b c d Meyer, Nicholas (August 6, 2002). Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, The Directors Edition: Audio commentary (DVD, Disc 1/2). Paramount Pictures.
- Back to top↑ Gross, Edward; Altman, Mark A. Captains’ Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages (in English) . New York: Little Brown & Co. ISBN 978-0316329576 .
- Back to top↑ Shatner, William ; Chris Kreski (1994). Star Trek Memories . HarperCollins. P. 161. ISBN 0-0610-9235-5 .
- ↑ Jump to:a b c Spelling, Ian (August 7, 1994). From deep space to heaven. The Toronto Sun .
- Back to top↑ Barrett, Michele; Barrett, Duncan (2001). Star Trek: The Human Frontier . Routledge. Pp. 20-26. ISBN 0-415-92982-2 .
- Back to top↑ Wyn Kelley (June 2006). «All Astir». Leviathan: A Journal of Melville Studies 8 (2): 101-106. doi : 10.1111 / j.1750-1849.2006.01138.x .
- Back to top↑ Hinds, Jane (1997). «The Wrath of Ahab; Or, Herman Melville Meets Gene Roddenberry. The Journal of American Culture 20 (1): 43-46. doi : 10.1111 / j.1542-734X.1997.00043.x .
- Back to top^ Meyer, Nicholas (1982). Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan (DVD; Disc 1/2). Paramount Pictures . Scene at 29: 30-29-45.
- ↑ Jump to:a b Biderman, Shai; Devlin, William J (2008). «The Wrath of Nietzsche». In Kevin Decker and Jason Eberl. Star Trek and Philosophy: The Wrath of Kant (in English) . Chicago, Illinois: Open Court. Pp. 47-59. ISBN 978-0-8126-9649-3 .
- ↑ Jump to:a b c Associated Press (December 2, 2002). Patrick Stewart envious of villain roles . CTV.ca . Accessed December 4, 2007 .
- Back to top↑ Germain, David (December 13, 2002). «Best of the baddies: No Star Trek evil one was nastier than lunatic Khan». The Gazette . P. D13.
- ↑ Jump to:a b Ebert, Roger (January 1, 1982). «Review: Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan» . Chicago Sun-Times . Accessed September 13, 2008 . Error in appointment: Invalid tag ; The name “ebert-rev” is defined several times with different contents
- Back to top↑ Zacharek, Stephanie (August 22, 2000). « ‘ Star Trek II’ DVD Review». Salon .
- Back to top↑ Christopher Null (2002). “Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan” . Filmcritic.com . Consulted on April 12, 2007 .
- Back to top↑ Iaccino, James (1998). Jungian Reflections Within the Cinema: A Psychological Analysis of Sci-Fi and Fantasy Archetypes . Praeger / Greenwood. Pp. 18-21. ISBN 0-275-95048-4 .
- Back to top↑ Khoorsed, Jehan (November 18, 1994). «Star Trek fans facing major disappointment». The Ottawa Citizen . P. B6.
- Back to top↑ Pirrello, Phil; Jim Vejvoda, Scott Collura (April 29, 2009). Trek’s best villains . IGN . P. 5 . Consulted on June 2, 2009 .
- Back to top↑ Melloy, Neil (October 10, 2002). “Vader our most wanted villain.” Courier Mail . P. 18.
- Back to top↑ Staff (June 12, 2006). «Montalban’s Singh Tops out-of-this-world poll». World Entertainment News Network .
- Back to top↑ Chuck Lorre, Steven Molaro, Nichole Lorre and Jessica Ambrosetti (story), Bill Prady, David Goetsch, Jim Reynolds and Maria Ferrari (screenplay) (April 12, 2010). “The Wheaton Recurrence.” The Big Bang Theory . Episode 59. Season 3. CBS . Min. 13.39.
- Return to top↑ Turnage, Jeremy (February 5, 2006). «Humorous Website YTMND.com rising in popularity» . Financial Times . Accessed December 4, 2007 .
- Back to top↑ Sheet “Robot Chicken” Two Weeks Without Food (2009) in English and in Spanish in Internet Movie Database .
- Back to top↑ Sheet “Robot Chicken” The Deep End (2005) in English and in Spanish in Internet Movie Database .
- Back to top↑ Carroll, Larry (May 15, 2009). ” ‘ Star Trek’ Open To Sequel Director With William Shatner Or Khan . MTV . Accessed May 19, 2009 .