Jose Manuel Estrada (thinker)

José Manuel Estrada ( Buenos Aires , Argentina , 13 as July as 1842 – Asuncion , Paraguay , 17 as September as 1894 ) was a teacher , writer , political , intellectual and eminent speaker Argentine , 1 2 representative of the thinking Catholic . He wrote numerous works on education, history and politics of his country, was national deputy for the Catholic Union and rector of the National Colegio of Buenos Aires . He was noted for his strong opposition to secularism and liberalism characteristic of the generation of 80 , who ruled the country from the second half of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth century. On 17 September, in commemoration of his death, the day of the teacher is celebrated in Argentina.

Biography

José Manuel Estrada was born on July 13, 1842 and was baptized with the name of his father. When his mother died Rosario Perichón in 1851, 3 was next to its brothers in charge of its grandmother , Carmen de Liniers, daughter of the count of Buenos Aires . In that house he was educated by Manuel Pinto, a very rich and influential man who had lost most of his fortune in his old age. 4 At age 12, Estrada began his secondary education at the school of the Franciscan fathers, attached to the convent , 5 where he attended classes Friar Buenaventura Hidalgo. 6

Literary beginnings

In 1858 and with only 16 years, Estrada published To the discovery of America , with which it gained a contest organized by Literary Lyceum of Buenos Aires. He began in journalism: between November of that year and March of the following, he directed, together with his brother Santiago, a weekly newspaper called La Guirnalda , and collaborated in the weekly La Religión founded by Leon Federico Aneiros and Olegario Correa . 7 In 1859 published Signum Foederis – effects of social and religious harmony , work in which Estrada, with 17 years, in August urged the State of Buenos Aires to join the Argentina Confederation to restore national harmony. Referring to Fig.

In 1861 he founded the Society of St. Francis Xavier, to unite the artisans of Buenos Aires, 10 and to spread Catholic culture among them. 11 This was an antecedent of the Catholic Circles of Workers, and a sign of Estrada’s social concern, in line with what would later be known as the Church’s Social Doctrine . 12

In 1862 he published his pamphlet Christianity and Democracy, rebutting Francisco Bilbao ‘s thesis that Christianity and democracy are incompatible, and that Christianity was the cause of the evils of America. Estrada said: “We are Republicans and we love freedom, because we are Christians and we love the dignity of man”. In 1862 he also published The Genesis of our Race , a controversial work, 13 to refute Gustavo Minelli, professor of history at the University of Buenos Aires . 14 In this work, Estrada asserted that the human race is one. fifteen

In 1864, with 22 years of age, he founded with the Lucio V. Mansilla Literary Circle, 16 whose first meeting was attended by, among others, Valentín Alsina , Dardo Rocha , Luis Sáenz Peña , Miguel Navarro Viola , Carlos Guido and Spano and Estanislao del Field . 17 During that first meeting officiated Alsina President of the circle, and Estrada Mansilla as secretaries; Juan María Gutiérrez was elected president, and Juana Manso , Marcos Sastre , Luis Lorenzo Domínguez , Dardo Rocha and Juan Carlos Gómez were elected as members. The circle focused on the study of Argentine history , thematic proposed by the president of the Nation, Bartolomé Miter . 18 Other personalities of national relevance who participated in the meetings of the circle were Amadeo Jacques , Pastor Obligado , Miguel Puiggari , Carlos Burmeister and Manuel Trelles . That year Estrada also published Historical essay on the revolution of the comuneros of Paraguay in Century XVIII . 19

Road educator

In October 1865, the Director of Schools of the Province of Buenos Aires, Luis Jose de la Peña , summoned him to dictate a course of Argentine History in the new Normal School of Teachers that worked in a room of the Cathedral School to the North . 20 Estrada designed a 30-lesson course at two public nightly conferences per week: he immediately captured the interest of the enlightened neighbors since at that time it was not common to study the history of the country.

In 1868, given the success of his courses, he published the book Lessons in Argentine History , which includes 21 of the 30 lessons, from the conquest to the Rosas government : more than half of them deal with the period before May Revolution . twenty-one

President Domingo Faustino Sarmiento was appreciative of Estrada, even though they disagreed in some ideological aspects: “of the young Estrada I liked much of his readings on history”. 22 So when in 1869 the President established a chair of Civics at the Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires , he was appointed holder. In that year Emilio Castro , 23 governor of Buenos Aires, appointed him head of the Department of Schools, a position previously held by the resigning Luis José de la Peña, and which Estrada would occupy until 1870. 24 At that time, Were evaluated: Estrada organized a series of conferences and courses for his professional development and proposed to remove those who were less competent or had an unjustified absenteeism. 25 The governor implemented these reforms in a partial way, so Estrada resigned the following year. 26

Political Incursions

In 1871 Estrada was elected to the constitutional convention of the Province of Buenos Aires for the Fifth Campaign Section, which included the parties of Luján , Mercedes and Chivilcoy . The provincial constitution had been written in 1854 when it was still separated from the rest of the Confederation , and had to adapt to the new context. 27 Estrada made its contribution in the regulation of the right to teach, favoring a wording of article 33 that allowed the operation of universities with the power to grant academic degrees and own property. 28 He also defended the proportional elective system, but failed to impose a secret ballot. 29 In that same year also published an article entitled The Church and the State , that would receive criticisms on the part of other Catholics, notably Félix Frías and Fray Mamerto Esquiú . That was the more liberal period of Estrada, in which he held Montalambert ‘s thesis : “Free Church in the Free State.” 30

In 1873 Estrada was elected provincial deputy. As such, he actively participated in the debate on the provincial education law and prepared a draft law on schools. His membership in the provincial Chamber of Deputies would extend until 1876. His classes on Civic Instruction were published in the National College of Buenos Aires , which would be known and read by several generations of Argentines under the title “Liberal politics under the tyranny of Rosas , Where he analyzed the work of Esteban Echeverría entitled Socialist Dogma and built a more elaborate social and political philosophy. 31

In 1874 he was appointed head of the General Directorate of Normal Schools, and in 1875, although he did not have a university degree, at the request of President Nicolas Avellaneda he took the chair of constitutional and administrative law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Buenos Aires Which had become vacant after the death of Florentino González . 32 Estrada put a lot of effort into his teaching and wrote a series of articles on the subject, since there were no manuals and books of American law were used. Its articles Suffrage and Representation of the minorities stand out . 33

Estrada accepted President Avellaneda’s offer to hold the position of rector of the National College of Buenos Aires as successor to Alfredo Cosson , and was appointed on July 16, 1876. 34 As rector he undertook a series of reforms in the curriculum : he added topics of Argentine history to sprout in the students a feeling of healthy patriotism, and incorporated the study of the institutions of federalism. He also promoted an increase in the salaries of teachers, because “the vocation of the teacher is not confused with that of the martyr, nor with that of the penitent.” 35 36 Among his many speeches – which showed his teaching capacity and his oratory decked and passionate – are preserved those who had as audience the students of the National College, including the one made on the occasion of the death of ex-governor Juan Manuel de Rosas , Whom he presented as “two men: the caudillo and the tyrant”. 37 One of the locutions of the speech, “Unfortunate peoples who forget!”, Became a noble thought within the political-social and constitutional history of Argentina. 38 39 After the conference, the students accompanied him on the way to his house living in the street and before the statue of San Martin in Retiro , Adolfo Miter improvised a speech on behalf of the students. 40 41

Wretched peoples who forget! Those from whose heart the memory of their benefactors disappears, like sepulchral inscriptions that erase the living as they pass; Those whose conscience disappears hatred towards the great wicked, like the fire of a torch turned off in the abominable wave! Let us give thanks to heaven, because we know how to glorify Saint Martin ; Let us thank him because we know how to deplore Rosas, and lift up the Christian prayer at the foot of the altar for all those who resisted corruption and fell under the dagger! […]

Ah! If it were given to infuse into your spirit these truths, as a light for the dark hours of uncertainty, as a force for the blind hours of temptation and struggle; If I could give you back to the family, and give yourself to life impregnated in these feelings that pale and cool in my lips, I would also exclaim: non omnis moriar : no, I will not die at all! 42

José Manuel Estrada, April 24, 1877.
From the beginning and end of his speech to the students of the National College
on the occasion of the death of Juan Manuel de Rosas and
the funerals celebrated in Buenos Aires by the victims of tyranny

In national politics

Between the end of the 1870s and the beginning of the 1880s, Estrada radically changed his relationship with liberalism: maintaining the ideas of individual freedom and democracy, he flatly rejected the name of liberal, since he considered that political liberalism was intrinsically linked to moral relativism and secularism . 43 In 1880 he decided to re-edit the Argentine Magazine , which had disappeared in 1872. In its first issue, the editorial said that the magazine “will be Christian”, and the motto chosen for publication was St. Paul’s phrase: instaurare omnia In Christ ( Ephesians 1:10). 44

Especially important was his performance at the Pedagogical Congress of 1882 where he argued that the common public school should be Catholic , having a hard discussion with Leandro N. Alem . Freemasonry proposed a ban on religious schools, and the strict secularism of all schools in the country. 45 At that time, in a non-controversial system, students whose parents requested so requested were exempted from religious instruction in public schools. 46 On August 1 of that year La Unión was founded with the collaboration, among other personalities, of Estrada and his brother Santiago. This newspaper would be published for eight years and aimed to mitigate the absence of newspapers with a non-liberal tendency. 47

In 1883 the Catholic Association was founded, which presided over Estrada and in whose leadership participated: Tristán Achával Rodríguez , Miguel Navarro Viola , Emilio Lamarca , Apolinario Casabal , Pedro Goyena , Tomás de Anchorena , and Enrique Lezica , among others. 48 The Association sought to impact on the public debate about the secularity or catholicity of teaching. A year later, after a busy Assembly of Catholics, 49 the Association would transmute into a political party, Catholic Union, with which Estrada would be elected national deputy . 50 In July of that year President Julio Argentino Roca and his education minister Eduardo Wilde relieved Estrada by Amancio Alcorta in the rectorate of the National College, antecedent of the escalation of events that would face the government with the Catholic Church the following year. 51 52

At the beginning of 1884, the government hired a group of North American teachers specially selected so that they were of Protestant religion and destined them to the new Normal School of Cordova. 53 The priest vicar of the diocese, Geronimo Clara, urged Catholics not to send their children to that school, and the government responded by accusing him of being destabilizing and subversive. A group of Catholics, including three university professors, signed a manifesto in defense of the religious and for this reason the professors were dropped off from their chairs. Estrada and other personalities interceded for these teachers before the national government, and so also a presidential decree expelled Estrada from his chair of constitutional and administrative law at the University of Buenos Aires . 54 55 The apostolic nuncio was also expelled , and the dioceses of Salta , Jujuy and Santiago del Estero intervened . 56 ‘s when, to the many students who came to his home to desagraviarlo, Estrada delivered one of his most famous speeches, in which he alluded to Julio A. Roca and his collaborators:

I was given the task of teaching you the law. Governors aborted from the camps and the decomposition of the oligarchies are not judges of my teaching; But the whole society bears witness to what I now teach you: to exercise it without looking at those who envisage despotismos from above, breaking down justice, and from below, adjusting the neck to receive the yoke … 57 58

In 1886 was elect deputy by the Catholic Union, next to Pedro Goyena . 59 From his bank tried to prevent that the national government assigned land on the channel of the Beagle to a subject of the British crown , thing that was approved and it took to the foundation of the city of Ushuaia . 60 In December of that year, the province of Tucumán had elected Juan Posse as governor, who was not a supporter of President Juárez Celman . For this reason an armed column was organized that left of Cordova and occupied the provincial town hall. The national congress, instead of ordering it to be restored in power to the legal authorities, ordered the federal intervention of the province, designating the interventor to the official Salustiano Zavalía . These maneuvers were opposed by Estrada, but without positive results. 61 He also opposed and represented the opinion of Catholic thought, against the civil marriage law sanctioned in 1888 and adjectivada as an intrusion of the state in a social role that does not correspond. He also opposed Act 1420 because he established the secular school . 62 . Despite all his opposition and struggle, he could not prevent the enactment of secular education laws , civil marriage and the passing of the Civil Registry at the hands of the State.

Last years

In 1890, already finished his mandate as deputy, was one of the speakers in the celebrated meeting of the 13 of April in Frontón Buenos Aires where the Civic Union of the Youth was founded , that would become the Radical Civic Union . 63 The day of the event, at night, Estrada fainted and vomiting, which worried his doctors, who advised him to rest a while. Since then his participation in the political and journalistic life was diminishing: 64 the Civic Union carried out a revolution in July of 1890, but Estrada was completely oblivious to the facts because it was in the city of Rosario de la Frontera restoring its physical state . 65 In October 1893 President – elect Luis Saenz Peña called for a place in his cabinet, but Estrada rejected the offer. Instead, he accepted to be designated plenipotentiary minister before the Paraguayan government, where he thought to find a climate more suitable for his health. 66 In that country ‘s foreign minister was a former student of his: Venancio López , which facilitated their work. Estrada’s health did not improve, and he died in the afternoon of September 17, 1894.

His remains arrived in Buenos Aires aboard the frigate La Argentina. By presidential disposition was veiled in the Metropolitan Cathedral with the honors of a general of division; And the canon Juan Nepomuceno Terrero , a friend of Estrada, pronounced the funeral oration. His funeral was attended by thousands of people, including President Luis Sáenz Peña . 67 Their remains rest in the cemetery of the Recoleta . 68 The tomb was declared a historic monument by decree 12806 of October 2, 1946, and identified with the number 419. 69

In commemoration of his death on September 17 in the Argentine Republic commemorates the day of the Professor. 70

Make two names in your soul, a motto and teach of the supreme victories, God and the Fatherland! 71

José Manuel Estrada, to the students of
the National School of Buenos Aires.

Political Idea

Moral law and natural order

Estrada affirmed that human dignity was intrinsic to all people, and that the origin of this dignity resided in the natural order . 72 For this reason, the author placed the moral law as an indispensable principle for any just legal order: “no political legislation or collective act in a thousand historical situations of humanity can diminish the stability and efficiency of the moral law” . 73 This contrasts with the utilitarianism propagated in the Plata by Esteban Echeverría . 74 He also rejected moral relativism, described as “variable”, “corruptible” and “metaphysical extravagances.” 75 It is the moral law, according to Estrada, that makes men really equal: men are equal by their own nature, not because Power seems to equate them. The moral law is independent of what comes to say the civil law, which changes according to who legislates: before the moral law all men must behave morally. 76 But without the moral law of Christianity, the door opens to deny human dignity – whose only philosophical support is morality. 77 Hence arises the affirmation of the social importance of religion and its influence on public affairs. 78

There is a superior sovereignty to all that have disputed the dominion of the society and the honors of history. In the midst of the human vicissitudes and the extreme mobility of the passions, it remains unchanged with that august identity of the absolute. This sovereignty is that of moral good … Consequently … the social relations of man are governed by moral good, and a horrible blasphemy is uttered when it is affirmed that politics can dispense with its rules. … So, neither governments nor peoples can do anything. The caprice of tyrants and the enthusiasm or fear of the crowds have a limit that they can not save. That limit is the fundamental moral principles. 79

Democracy

The author was an exponent of Democrat and Republican thinking . He maintained that the fundamental basis of a republic was in the morality of its rulers, and that immoral rulers would inevitably end up exercising tyranny . He lamented the democracy of parties , which he saw as an impediment to authentic popular expression. 80 Following the thought Thomist (which at this point follows Aristotle ) Estrada believed it might be possible to think a just society without democracy. But he considered that democracy was the most appropriate way for the Argentines, and that a just Monarchy needed a holy monarch. 81 The republican ideas of the author presupposed a system of laws perfectly aligned with the moral law, and that they did not consent to the “tyranny of numbers” but respected the freedom of minorities. 82 also provided an absolute egalitarianism or contempt for the individual merits of each. There are four principles that Estrada recognizes as fundamental to a democracy:

  • The social order with harmony of rights, where each social class has a role and the rights of each person are established with justice.
  • The supremacy of the law, laws being rational provisions promulgated for the common good, and not for the good of a sector or minority.
  • The subordination of selfishness, so that all work for the common good, without neglecting private initiative or individual rights.
  • Respect for the moderating entities, in all areas, be it Justice, the Church, and others. 83

Estrada also distinguished the concepts of mass and people during his argument about the need for school education: “A people is not a shapeless set of men absorbed in a monstrous, omnipotent or immobile collection.” 84 He was also an outspoken advocate of universal suffrage, rejecting qualified voting proposals . 85

The city, the countryside and the immigration

Estrada observed the crudeness of life in the countryside : the gaucho had no home or property, and he could not get them because the lack of a fixed job prevented him from saving. In addition, the high rate of illiteracy and the remoteness of the center of power meant that they could not have political representation. His article La Campaña , 1869, was a pioneer in these denunciations (soon to be published El Gaucho Martín Fierro ): in the campaign the only people really free were the justice of the peace and the commissary . 86 The Gauchos, however, were oppressed by “arbitrary and cruel to implement the laws”: 87 according Estrada true democratic equality can only be achieved “raising the intellectual and moral level” of the people of the campaign by accessing the public education. 88 The immigration to Argentina , according to the author, not help solve the problem of political exclusion of the rural people, since most immigrants the cities were installed, especially that of Buenos Aires and the coast. 89 Unlike other authors of his day, Estrada showed some indifference about the subject. Sarmiento, for example, had policies tending to flood the country with white immigrants to nullify the influence of Creoles, blacks and Indians. Estrada, however, merely observed the phenomenon and commented on the fact that many immigrants did not want to take Argentine citizenship, so he proposed the possibility that someone could have several nationalities . 90

The role of the State

Estrada feared that Argentina would return to a situation similar to that of the government of Juan Manuel de Rosas , therefore always favored individual freedom and private initiative. The State, according to its thinking, should not prohibit anything that people were able to do, and decision authority should always be as close to them as possible (better municipal than provincial, better provincial than national). These ideas are in the same line as those that the Popes would later expose in the Social Doctrine of the Church and which today are expressed in the principle of subsidiarity . 91 While he had approached the French liberalism in his youth, then he read Alexis de Tocqueville and became more similar to American liberalism. Thus Estrada’s thinking sought the supremacy of civil society over the state. In the political controversies of 1880, liberalism identified with secularism and Estrada was then completely separated from that ideology. 92

As for the State’s relations with the Church, Estrada did not admit that the private sphere was marginalized, but it did support religious freedom, understood mainly as the absence of state regulations in matters of personal religion or in the functioning of religious orders And of the Church as a whole. In an early period of his youth Estrada accepted the theses of French liberal Catholicism, but changed his position after studying the papal teaching and documents of the First Vatican Council . 93

I was seduced for some time by the spirit, well-intentioned but paradoxical, of those who in Belgium and France were called, prior to the Vatican Council, liberal Catholics. I thank God that opened my eyes and dissipated these illusions from my soul … Christianity is the Kingdom of Christ over souls and societies. What an idea so simple, so luminous, and so difficult to perceive, however, when it is poisoned from childhood in an atmosphere of philanthropy, which is a true antropolatry. 94

Christianity, according to the author, emphasizes the intimate consciousness of the person that other thinkers or moralists do not, who often emphasize obedience to state norms or dependent on some other human authority. That is why it rejects the influence of the State in the moral issues, which according to him must remain in the hands of the Church. 95

Freedom and liberalism

Monument to José Manuel Estrada, located in the Plaza Lorea of the Monserrat neighborhood , one of the three plazas that accompany the Congress Palace of the Argentine Nation in the city ​​of Buenos Aires . It was made by the sculptor Hector Rocha and inaugurated in 1947. In the sculpture, placed on a base in height, he is represented standing, holding a book in his left hand and with the palm of his right hand open, in attitude oratory. At the base of the monument is the inscription:


“José Manuel Estrada
Teacher of teachers
with the word and with the pen,
was champion of Christ and freedom”.

In his conference of 1878, in the Catholic Association, Estrada exposed part of his thinking about freedom and liberalism. As a Catholic, Estrada defends the free will of the human person, but insists that modern thinking has a concept of freedom that he considers wrong, calls it “materialistic freedom” and interprets that since the French Revolution attempted to expand hereinafter Concept of freedom without obtaining good results (in the opinion of the author), rather, obtained the industrialism whose corporations anonymous capital, he affirmed, separated on the one hand the world of work and on the other the moral responsibilities of the employer. 96 In his book on Estrada, Hector Tanzi interprets his thought as “liberal freedoms brought the exploitation of wage” 97 true freedom, according to Estrada, would be arising from the natural order and morality. 98

Estrada defended freedom of education. In his article Reforma Universitaria , published in El Argentino in 1873, argues that the existence of independent universities is not incompatible with that of state universities, and that part of the right to teach a teacher consists of having the possibility of teaching in a university that Is not controlled by the government. He further argued that while the teacher is legitimately free to teach, he had a moral obligation to maintain neutrality in political and religious matters in the classroom. 99

With respect to the father, freedom of teaching consists in the full right under which he can choose the doctrines under which his children are to be educated and the teachers to whom his education is to be entrusted. With regard to teachers, it consists of the right to spill the doctrines that form the basis of their scientific and moral character, without being hampered by the censorship of the State. 100

Estrada proposed public education as a solution to the great cultural differences between the sectors of society, since it fosters the intellectual capacities of children, enabling their social development. 101 However, Estrada rejected the gratuitous public education that would make the families hostages of the State and increase the taxes. It also rejected its compulsory nature based on the coercive force of the State, preferring indirect stimuli. 102

Education is primitively a paternal ministry, a subsidiary social function. 103

The family

The family was very important to the author’s thinking. According to him, the intervention of the State in family ties lacks legitimacy, so he opposed the institution of civil registration, the concept of marriage as a contract and its dissolution, divorce . He defined family as “an association purely of love.” 104 He further stated that it is for families to decide on the education of their children and the family property regime, emphasizing the importance of probate . 105 In probate law, Estrada rejected the idea of a legitimate established by law, considering it an arbitrary state interference in the affairs of families. 106

In good time the models of the patriarchal institution should be repudiated … liberal societies should study the model of autonomous and vigorous domestic society by the solidity of the property and empire of the will. 107

Solution to social problems

Estrada believed that the solution to social conflicts could not come from either liberalism or socialism: he rejected both proposals as materialists and affirmed that the solution must come from Christian morality , which seeks to integrate all social classes into a united social fabric and without Discord. 108 In The Genesis of our race he quotes Donoso Cortes in his assertion that in every great political question a great theological question is involved. 109This idea is still present in Argentine Catholic sectors, one of whose exponents is Leonardo Castellani . Estrada formulated the following ideas to improve the social situation:

  • Encourage the institution of private property, discouraging its concentration in the hands of few people and making anyone be able to own land or urban lots. 110
  • Fostering the right of workers’ association . 111
  • Stop considering work as a simple commodity. 112
  • Avoid ideas of hatred and struggle between social classes . 113

Economic organizations that agglomerate capital in the hands of an oppressive dominion of the poor, the dependent and the worker, carry deadly principles within them … Distributing land ownership, making it accessible as far as it depends on the law … is the way To extirpate the legacy of the colonial economy. 114

The ownership of the land

Estrada affirmed that the problems of depopulation of Argentina and the abandonment of the inhabitants of the field originated in the early conquest and feudalización of great extensions of earth. 115 In its Constitutional Law Course compared various ways in which it is generated and transmitted the property, and described three broad categories: the feudal system where most of the land was obtained by conquest and is concentrated in a minority social class, the system French in which the land receives a mercantile treatment and in which the banks and the State intervene; And the Anglo-American system with the law of original appropriation ( homestead ) that delivers lots of public lands to those who commit to inhabit them and cultivate them for a while. 116

Contributions to Education

Estrada proposed a number of novel ideas for the field of Education in Argentina: unlike other intellectuals of the generation of the 80 as Sarmiento and Wilde , Estrada opposed the State Teaching , and favored the co-government of Education both by the State As for the families of the students. He also envisaged an educational decentralization that guaranteed the right to education and freedom of education. 117

Elementary school

In Estrada’s thought, common at the end of the nineteenth century, 118 the objective of the primary school is to moralize and form the character of individuals; And thus moralize society as a whole and make it fit for democracy , a form of government that , according to the author, requires cultural and intellectual preparation. This primary education would depend on two institutions: the school, and the popular library. 119 With a population well educated both be avoided despotism , which requires the voluntary submission of the majority, as the governments of oligarchies or uncultured majority. 120 In his book Memory for Common Education in the Province of Buenos Aires , Estrada systematically addresses aspects of education. First distinguish physical education from spiritual education. Within the latter, the aspects of social life (education for peer bonding, family life, and citizenship) and individual life (mastery of will, mastery of sensibility, and intellectual Informative as moral ). 121

Estrada considered that the partisans of compulsory education have a good and legitimate opinion, 122 but never finished accepting it, thinking that non-coercive methods that have the same result should be sought. 123 As to its gratuitousness , the author considers it a delusion, 124 since families in reality do pay for state education through taxes, and then it is impossible to call it “gratuitous.” 125 Estrada also disliked the idea that the only free education was provided by the monopoly of the state, making Catholic education impossible for the poorer classes. 126 On the other hand, Estrada proposed “a subsidiary co-participation between all educational agents, including the State, in financing education in order to simultaneously respond to equality and freedom”. 127 A third point that examined Estrada is the religious school: he believes that without religion there is a sufficiently firm foundation for moral , that is to determine exactly what are the good and the bad . He faced two problems, first the contradiction that religious teaching would bring to the state school, dependent on a state that governs people of different beliefs; 128 and secondly the old-fashioned method that the Province of Buenos Aires had adopted, of making the students simply mechanically memorize the catechism. 129

Education for freedom, or simply education, because a people composed of men who know and moderate themselves can not fail to be free .

José Manuel Estrada 130

Secondary and university education

Following the ideas of his time, 118 Estrada considered secondary education to be the training of the ruling class : “Secondary instruction, together with the superior, professional and facultative, prepares the ruling class in the nations organized under the principle of Political equality “. 131 Since this is a formation of leaders, the author thought that the motivation should not be economic profit, but the elevation of the spirit and human faculties. 132Estrada said it best universities control to dictate secondary schools and their curricula as deemed more suitable for entry into the academic cloisters; And that both universities and colleges have legal status to be holders of real estate. 133

Literary criticism

According to his student Martín García Merou , his austerity and his talent inspired respect and sympathy; In literary terms, his style “is an oratory style par excellence, full of images and phrases of effect.” 134 Ricardo Rojas in his History of Literature Argentina does own the view Garcia Merou adding, “It was revealed as an academic speaker, the philosophical horizon of their ideas, and the literary conscience of his style,” although referring to the Lessons Of History , adjective as “confused” some of the images proper to the orality of teaching once transferred to the written text. 135 Rómulo Beovide, a member of the National Academy of Journalism , described his style as a “passionate and captivating verb”. 136

Family and offspring

Estrada was the son of José Manuel Estrada Barquín and Rosario Perichón de Vandeuil.

By the paternal branch, was grandson of Juan Bautista Estrada, native of Santander , that had happened to Indias in 1799 next to its brother Francisco Tomás. They married the sisters Carlota and Manuela Barquín Velasco respectively. Juan Bautista had José Manuel Estrada Barquín, deputy of the provincial legislature of Buenos Aires, and founder of the first gas plant for public street lighting in the city, which was the father of the biographer. 137

In maternal branch: Martín Altolaguirre, born in Vitoria , married in Buenos Aires on March 19, 1730 with Maria Josefa de Pando Patiño. His daughter Tomasa Altolaguirre married with the Guipuzcoano Martín Simón de Sarratea, whose daughter Maria Martina Sarratea was the woman of Santiago de Liniers . Among the children of the Liniers family was Maria del Carmen, married to Juan Bautista Perichon de Vandeuil: these were the maternal grandparents. After the execution of Liniers, many of his children went to Spain. María del Carmen remained in Argentina and that is why the viceroy’s house and the surrounding grounds were the place where José Manuel’s brother Ángel founded the well-known publishing house Estrada. 138

He had eight brothers. In addition to the mentioned Angel , Santiago, Narciso, Eduardo, Juan Bautista, Enrique and other two that died very young. 139

Estrada married on March 14, 1868 with Elena Esteves Saguí, daughter of Miguel Esteves Saguí and Juana Santos Rubio. His children were: José Manuel, Miguel, Alberto, María Elena and María Cecilia. The residence of the family was a fifth located at the corner of Juncal and Suipacha, arriving until the River of the Silver. 140

References

  1. Back to top↑ National University of Cordoba , Faculty of Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics. «José Manuel Estrada» . Scientific Outreach Program . Retrieved on December 2, 2013 . “… was one of the most outstanding intellectuals of the second half of the nineteenth century, in addition to being perhaps the most eminent speaker of our country during those years.”
  2. Back to top↑ Bustamante, Joaquín T. (1995). Ars Oratoria . Córdoba, Argentina: National University of Río Cuarto. P. 80. ISBN 950-665-017-9 . Retrieved on December 2, 2013 . Bustamante includes José Manuel Estrada among the great Argentine speakers, a group made up of Bartolomé Miter , Domingo Faustino Sarmiento , Mamerto Esquiú , Pedro Goyena , Nicolás Avellaneda , Belisario Roldán and Alfredo Palacios .
  3. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.7
  4. Back to top↑ had been provincial deputy and deputy to the General Congress of 1824 . Tanzi, p.7
  5. Back to top↑ Ventura Flores, p.177
  6. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.9
  7. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.11
  8. Back to top↑ Ventura Flores, p.179
  9. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.11
  10. Back to top↑ Ventura Flores, p.180
  11. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.11
  12. Back to top↑ Ventura Flores, p.180
  13. Back to top↑ National University of Cordoba , Faculty of Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics. «José Manuel Estrada» . Scientific Outreach Program . Retrieved on December 2, 2013 . “… a controversial work in which he replied to Professor Gustavo Minelli.”
  14. Back to top↑ Ventura Flores, p.179
  15. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.12
  16. Back to top↑ Bruno, Paula (2012). “The Literary Circle (1864-1866): a space of conciliation of interests” . Prisms 16 (2): 167-170. ISSN  1852-0499 . Retrieved on November 13, 2013 .
  17. Back to top↑ Ventura Flores, p.180
  18. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.13
  19. Back to top↑ Ventura Flores, p.181
  20. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.19
  21. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.20
  22. Back to top↑ Sarmiento, Domingo Faustino (1948). Complete Works . Tomo XIX. Buenos Aires: Editorial Luz. P. 197.
  23. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.29
  24. Back to top↑ Ventura Flores, p.182
  25. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.29
  26. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.33
  27. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.44
  28. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.45
  29. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.47
  30. Back to top↑ Torrendell, page 23
  31. Back to top↑ Buenos Aires Pedagogical University, ed. (March 2011). «Estrada, José Manuel» . Argentine educators . Retrieved on December 2, 2013 .
  32. Back to top↑ Ventura Flores, p.183
  33. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.44
  34. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.37. At that time the College had 1177 students, 414 regular, 38 free and 375 night courses. The establishment had 23 teachers and 6 caretakers.
  35. Back to top↑ José Manuel Estrada, Memories , year 1878.
  36. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.38
  37. Back to top↑ Educ.ar, ed. (April 24, 1877). Speech of José Manuel Estrada, rector of the National College of Buenos Aires, on the occasion of the death of former governor Juan Manuel de Rosas . Archive of historical documents . Archived from the original on November 28, 2015 . Retrieved on December 2, 2013 . Quoted from: Estrada, José Manuel (1946), Speeches . Argentinean classics. Buenos Aires: Editorial Estrada.
  38. Back to top↑ National Academy of History (Argentina) (1945). “Bulletin of the National Academy of History, Volume 18” . P. 400 . Retrieved on December 2, 2013 .
  39. Back to top↑ Bidart Campos, Germán José (1976). Argentine political and constitutional history . Vol. 1. Buenos Aires: Editing. P. 256.
  40. Return to top↑ Tanzi, page 38
  41. Back to top↑ Rivarola, Matienzo, The teacher José Manuel Estrada: Three public readings in the academies , page 52
  42. Back to top↑ Estrada, José Manuel (1927). Vilarrasa Road, Albert, ed. Complete works of José Manuel Estrada . Vol. 12. Buenos Aires: Bookshop of the College, by P. Igón y cía.
  43. Back to top↑ «… although the first Estrada will call itself liberal and the second quite the opposite, this does not imply” paradoxically “a substantive modification in its social and political philosophy”, Torrendell, p.25
  44. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.78
  45. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.81
  46. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.82
  47. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.85-86
  48. Back to top↑ Ventura Flores, p.191
  49. Back to top↑ Biography of Estrada in Portal Educ.ar
  50. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.115-116
  51. Back to top↑ Ventura Flores, p.183-184
  52. Back to top↑ Alejandro Sambrizzi, Chronicles of 1884 , page 60
  53. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.93
  54. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.94
  55. Back to top↑ Ventura Flores, p.183-184
  56. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.95
  57. Back to top↑ Ghirardi, Enrique (1983). Christian Democracy . Argentine Political Library, Vol. 5. Buenos Aires: Latin American Editor Center . P. 23. ISBN  950-25-0004-0 . Retrieved on December 2, 2013 .
  58. Return to top↑ Sulé, Jorge Oscar (1982). The heterodox of the 80 . Buenos Aires: Macchi Ediciones. P. 35 . Retrieved on December 2, 2013 .
  59. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.117
  60. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.118
  61. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.119
  62. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.95
  63. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.129-130
  64. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.133
  65. Back to top↑ National University of Cordoba , Faculty of Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics. «José Manuel Estrada» . Scientific Outreach Program . Retrieved on December 2, 2013 . “The radical revolution of July found him in Rosario de la Frontera, where he was resting and recovering.”
  66. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.135
  67. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.136
  68. Back to top↑ Torrendell, page 13.
  69. Back to top↑ National Commission of Museums and Monuments and Historical Places. «José Manuel Estrada – Sepulcro» . Archived from the original November 28, 2015 . Accessed January 15, 2014 .
  70. Back to top↑ Ministry of Education in Argentina . «Sept. 17» . Cultural Ephemeris . Retrieved on December 2, 2013 . “Teacher’s day. He recalls the teacher, speaker, writer, journalist and educator José Manuel Estrada, who was born on July 13, 1842 and died on September 17, 1894. »
  71. Back to top↑ Ventura Flores, p.189
  72. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.23
  73. Back to top↑ Estrada, Liberal politics under the tyranny of Rosas
  74. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.27
  75. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.28-29
  76. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.37
  77. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.42
  78. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.43-44
  79. Back to top↑ From the article Morality and democracy , in the Argentine Magazine, 1868. Quoted by Cárdenas, p. 107
  80. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.42
  81. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.75
  82. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.31
  83. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.31-32
  84. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.32-33
  85. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.72-73
  86. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.42-43
  87. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.231
  88. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.232
  89. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.79
  90. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.49
  91. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.50-53
  92. Back to top↑ Digital Library of the Ministry of Education , Argentine Educators – Estrada, José Manuel , page 4.
  93. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.65-69
  94. Back to top↑ Sun and Moon Magazine number 8, 1942, Unpublished Letter to Apolinario Casabal.
  95. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.36-37
  96. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p. 70-73
  97. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p. 71
  98. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.37
  99. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.46
  100. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.77
  101. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.72-74
  102. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.75
  103. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.75
  104. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.56
  105. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.55
  106. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.192-194
  107. Back to top↑ the course of constitutional law . Cited by Cárdenas, p. 191
  108. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p. 79
  109. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.42
  110. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.174. This idea is developed simultaneously in many authors, a good example is the book The restoration of the property , of Hilaire Belloc .
  111. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.175
  112. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.176
  113. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.177
  114. Back to top↑ From the work Liberal politics under the tyranny of Rosas . Cited by Cárdenas, p. 171
  115. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.194
  116. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.196
  117. Back to top↑ Digital Library of the Ministry of Education , Argentine Educators – Estrada, José Manuel , page 5.
  118. ↑ Jump to:a b Torrendell, page 104
  119. Back to top↑ Torrendell, page 77
  120. Back to top↑ Torrendell, page 78
  121. Back to top↑ José Manuel Estrada, ‘Memory for Common Education in the Province of Buenos Aires , pages 71 to 102
  122. Back to top↑ Torrendell, page 81
  123. Back to top↑ Cárdenas, p.75
  124. Back to top↑ José Manuel Estrada, Obras Completas , tome IV, page 245: «it is a false and pernicious qualification». Page 246: “calling it gratuitous is given a dye of philanthropic work that hurts self-love and reserve for children belonging to the poorer classes”
  125. Back to top↑ Torrendell, page 87
  126. Back to top↑ Torrendell, page 88
  127. Back to top↑ Torrendell, page 89
  128. Back to top↑ Torrendell, page 111
  129. Back to top↑ Torrendell, pages 111 and 112
  130. Back to top↑ José Manuel Estrada, Complete Works , volume IV, page 242
  131. Back to top↑ José Manuel Estrada, Complete Works , volume X, page 434
  132. Back to top↑ Torrendell, page 158
  133. Back to top↑ Torrendell, page 159
  134. Back to top↑ Marín García Merou, Literary Memories , Chapter VII
  135. Back to top↑ Ricardo Rojas, History of Argentine Literature , Volume IV: “The moderns.”
  136. Back to top↑ National Academy of Journalism
  137. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.7
  138. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.7
  139. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.8
  140. Back to top↑ Tanzi, p.59-60
  141. Back to top↑ Lucio Ricardo Pérez Calvo, Genealogías Argentinas III