Antonio Vallejo-Najera

Antonio Vallejo-Nájera Lobón 1 (or Vallejo-Nájera ) ( Paredes de Nava , Palencia , 1889 – Madrid , 25 of February of 1960 ) was a medical Spanish, first professor permanent of Psychiatry at the University Spanish. He is the father of the psychiatrist Juan Antonio Vallejo-Nágera .


He studied medicine at the University of Valladolid , where he obtained his degree in 1909. He then entered the Military Health Corps, performing his function with notable merit, mainly in the epidemics and in the war actions of the time, for Which obtains diverse national decorations. In 1917 he was appointed adjunct of the Spanish embassy in Berlin , as a member of the military commission which was to inspect the prisoner of war camps; For the accomplishment of this mission it obtains creditor of several other decorations of different European countries.

During his stay in Germany he has the opportunity to learn about psychiatric clinics and to listen to the lessons of Emil Kraepelin , Hans Walter Gruhle and Gustav Schwalbe ; These circumstances determine in Vallejo-Nájera his definitive vocation for Psychiatry. There he translates the works of Gruhle and Schwalbe into Castilian. Again in Spain, he established his residence in Madrid and, since 1930, has run the psychiatric clinic of Ciempozuelos . In 1931 he is a professor at the Academy of Military Health , center where the first teaching of the specialty is taught. Affection to Nazism during the Civil War Colonel Vallejo-Nájera directed the Psychiatric Services of Franco ‘s Army and wrote extensively about the degeneration of the Spanish race, which, according to him, have occurred during the Republic, a position also taken by Juan Jose Lopez Ibor , Ramón Sarró , José Solé Segarra , Marco Merenciano and other psychiatrists of his own side. 2 This is not to say that personal or academic relationships between different teachers were fluid. As their son, also a psychiatrist, reveals, both teams (Vallejo Nájera and Lopez Ibor) had a furious rivalry that led them to despise and oppose any affirmation of the other “side”, something that seemed habitual in medicine and in The Spanish academy when two “illustrious” professors were dedicated to the same branch of specialization.

In 1947 he is appointed by the Francoist institutions professor of Psychiatry at the University of Madrid , since he plays until 1959; Is, therefore, the first numerary professor of this specialty in the Spanish University. His teaching activity is evident in his work and in the huge number of courses and conferences he organizes. In 1951 he was elected a member of the Royal National Academy of Medicine .


As head of the Military Psychiatric Services of the Franco dictatorship , he was commissioned a study that showed the mental inferiority of people of Marxist ideology . 3 According to Eduard Pons Prades in his Republican children (RBA, 2005), Antonio Vallejo-Nájera “led, in 1938, a study on prisoners of war Republicans, to determine which malformation led to Marxism. I mean, I was looking for the red gene. ” In these studies, Vallejo-Najera claims that republican women had many points of contact with children and animals and that when social brakes are broken they are cruel because they lack intelligent and logical inhibitions, as well as having pathological feelings. Pons also states in his book that Vallejo-Najera asked in another of his works the creation of the General Corps of Inquisitors .

To carry out the study, two groups were used: one of prisoners members of the International Brigades and another composed of 50 malagueña prey . Some of the conclusions of the study carried out by Vallejo-Nájera are the following:

The idea of ​​the intimate relations between Marxism and mental inferiority had already been discussed previously in other works. The verification of our hypotheses has enormous political and social significance, for if they militate in Marxism of preference antisocial psychopaths, as it is our idea, the segregation of these subjects from childhood, could release the society of such terrible plague. 4

The mental inferiority of partisans of social and political equality or disaffected: “The perversity of the democratic regimes that favor resentment promotes the social failures with public policies, unlike the aristocratic regimes where only the best socially successful ‘. 5

The social imbecile includes that multitude of uncultured, clumsy, suggestible, devoid of spontaneity and initiative, which contribute to being part of the gregarious mass of anonymous people. 4

In addition to arguing the biological basis for political choices, her texts contributed to the idea of ​​women’s inferiority

A woman’s intelligence is atrophied like wings to the butterflies on the island of Kerguelen, since her mission in the world is not to fight in life, but to cradle the offspring of those who have to fight for her. 6

Other conclusions are:

Race is spirit. Spain is spirit. Hispanidad is a spirit … That is why we must impregnate ourselves with Hispanity … to understand our racial essence and to differentiate our race from the strange ones. This spirit defined it as “social militarism, which means order, discipline, self – sacrifice, timely service, because the phial military contains pure essences of social virtues, physical and spiritual strength.” And to improve the race was necessary “the militarization of the school, the university, the workshop, the cafe, the theater, all social areas.

His purification of the race included the resurgence of an Inquisition against people he considered unpatriotic, anti-Catholic and anti-military who corrupted the Spanish race. I affirm that:

The part of Spain’s racial problem was that there were too many Sancho Panzas (rounded physique, venturous, sensual and upstart), and few Don Quixotes (chaste, austere, sober and idealistic), imbued with militarism, identifying military culture as Maximum expression of superior race. 7

Part of his bibliography and his research are aimed at demonstrating that Marxism is a mental illness, that there is a red gene that makes people sick and that it is best if the reds do not have children or, if they do, they are separated Of their parents, “explains Montse Armengou. The commander and psychiatrist Antonio Vallejo-Nájera (1889-1960) was one of the key figures of the Francoist repression in the post-war period because it was covered in a pseudo-scientific mantle.

On August 23, 1938 Franco authorized the creation of the Cabinet of Psychological Investigations, whose purpose was “to investigate the biopsychic roots of Marxism,” as demanded by Vallejo-Najera, who had been a prestigious psychiatrist since the 1920s. Vinyes explains that it was “decisive” to reveal the drama of the lost children access to the documentation of the cabinet of Vallejo-Nájera.

In order to corroborate his preconceived hypotheses, the military studied 297 international brigadiers imprisoned in Burgos and 50 political prisoners detained in Malaga, and published the results in Biopsychism of Marxist fanaticism , which would demonstrate the mental inferiority of the partisans of equality, social and political, The brutality of their fanaticism and even their ugliness. “I tried to prove that the adversary was an evil underdog and, from there, everything is allowed against him,” explains Vinyes. In his book Eugenics of Hispanics and Regeneration of the Race , Vallejo defended “positive eugenics,” whose purpose was “to multiply the select and let the weak perish”, which in their obsessive universe were the red ones, whom he considered “individuals Mentally inferior and dangerous in their intrinsic evil. ” The dramatic conclusion of his theories exposed it in Madness and War: Psychopathology of the Spanish War , in which he advocated the separation of the children from the parents of the Marxists, since “the segregation of these subjects from childhood could liberate To society of such a fearsome plague. ”

This proximity to the Franco regime and the theories defended by his contemporaries in the service of Nazi Germany has caused that much of his work has been forgotten.


Part of the work of Vallejo-Najera has sought the disclosure of psychiatric concepts:

  • Eugenesia de la Hispanidad and regeneration of the race (Burgos, 1937).
  • Eugamia: selection of boyfriends (San Sebastián: Spanish Editorial, 1938).
  • Racial politics of the new state (San Sebastian: Spanish Editorial, 1938).
  • Psychological hygiene of the big cities (Bilbao: Chart of the Holy House of Mercy, 1941).
  • Abnormal children and youth (1941).
  • The case of Teresa Neumann (1937).
  • Locos egregios (1946).
  • Literature and psychiatry (1950).

Among the work of major scientific interest are:

  • Healing value of pyrethotherapy in schizophrenia (1928).
  • Early dementia and its clinical manifestations (1929).
  • Treatment of general paralysis and other neurosyphilis (1929).
  • Psychiatric clinical practice (1936).
  • Treatment of mental illnesses (1940).
  • Psychosis of War (1942, Madrid: Morata)
  • Treaty of Psychiatry (1944).

Its total production includes more than 30 own books and abundant translations that have had wide diffusion between the students of Castilian language; Some of his works have been translated into other languages.


  1. Back to top↑ The surname Vallejo-Nájera according to the Spanish- American heraldic dictionary , by Endika Mogrobejo –
  2. Back to top↑ Cf. González Duro, Enrique , The psychiatrists of Franco. The reds were not crazy , Barcelona: Peninsula, 2008.
  3. Back to top↑ Quiñonero, Llum. « Research; Psychiatric manipulation, “ El Mundo , January 20, 2002.
  4. ↑ Jump to:a b Vallejo-Nájera, Antonio. Madness in war. Psychopathology of the Spanish War , 1939.
  5. Back to top↑ «Psychism of Marxist fanaticism», Revista Médica Española , 1939.
  6. Back to top↑ Vallejo-Nájera, Antonio. Psychology of the sexes , 1944: 44.
  7. Back to top↑ González Duro, Enrique. The psychiatrists of Franco. The Reds were not crazy , Peninsula, 2008.